Manual Type I Juvenile Diabetes

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Overview. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin- dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas.
Table of contents

Insulin pumps are becoming more popular. Since more insurance companies are covering some or all of the cost, this method of insulin delivery is gaining in use. There is now an implantable insulin device that lasts for 90 days, and is expected to gain approval for twice that long.

Endocrine Community. Email Print Discuss. What is Type 1 Diabetes? An overview and key facts about type 1 diabetes including causes, signs and symptoms, screening and the process of diagnosis, as well as treatments for t his autoimmune disorder. You May Also Like:. Type 1 Diabetes in Children: Making the Diagnosis.

Patient Guides. Diabetes Guide for Older People The risk for diabetes increases with age, making diabetes common in older adults. Learn how you can live better. Patient Guide to Diabetic Neuropathy Several types of neuropathy nerve damage are caused by diabetes. Learn about these diabetic neuropathies: peripheral, autonomic, proximal, and focal neuropathies. Explains what nerves are affected in each type of diabetic neuropathy.

Patient Guide to Insulin The purpose of the Patient Guide to Insulin is to educate patients, parents, and caregivers about insulin treatment of diabetes. Patient Guide to Osteoporosis Prevention If you are like many people, you may think that osteoporosis—a condition marked by low bone mineral density, which leads to lowered bone strength and a heightened risk of fractures—is something you will not have to worry about until later in life. We've put together 5 delicious—and diabetes-friendly—recipes.

Breakfast, lunch, dinner—even an afternoon snack and a yummy dessert. This Patients' Guide will help you eat well all day long with our easy diabetic recipes. Thyroid Cancer Guide A neck lump or nodule is the most common symptom of thyroid cancer. It can occur if your blood glucose level is too high for a long time hyperglycaemia. If it isn't treated, retinopathy can eventually cause sight loss. Read more about diabetic eye screening.

If you have diabetes and you're thinking about having a baby, it's a good idea to discuss this with your diabetes care team. You'll need to keep your blood sugar under tight control, particularly before becoming pregnant and during the first eight weeks of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of the baby developing serious birth defects. Folic acid helps prevent your baby developing spinal cord problems. Doctors now recommend that all women planning to have a baby take folic acid.

Type 1 diabetes: Overview, symptoms, and treatment

Women with diabetes are advised to take 5mg a day until they're 12 weeks pregnant only available on prescription. You should also have your eyes checked. Retinopathy see above affects the blood vessels in the eyes and is a risk for all people with diabetes. Pregnancy can place extra pressure on the small vessels in your eyes, so it's important to treat retinopathy before you become pregnant.

Your GP or diabetes care team can give you further advice. You'll be best equipped to manage your diabetes if you're given information and education when you're diagnosed, and then on an ongoing basis. This gives people the best chance of developing the skills they need to effectively treat their condition, maintain their glucose levels at a normal level and help prevent long-term complications. It also reduces the risk of developing hypoglycaemia low blood glucose levels.

There are also several local adult education programmes, many of which are working towards the criteria for structured education. Ask your diabetes care team about the adult education programmes they provide. For a parent whose child is diagnosed with a life-long condition, the job of parenting becomes even tougher. The Diabetes UK website has more information and advice about your child and diabetes. Many people find it helpful to talk to others in a similar position, and you may find support from a group for people with diabetes.

Patient organisations have local groups where you can meet others who've been diagnosed with the condition. If your diabetes is controlled by medication, you're entitled to free prescriptions and eye examinations. Some people with diabetes may be eligible to receive disability benefits and incapacity benefits, depending on the impact the condition has on their life.

People over 65 who are severely disabled, may qualify for a type of disability benefit called Attendance Allowance. Carers may also be entitled to some benefit too, depending on their involvement in caring for the person with diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes

Home Illnesses and conditions Diabetes Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes See all parts of this guide Hide guide parts About type 1 diabetes Symptoms of type 1 diabetes Causes of type 1 diabetes Diagnosing type 1 diabetes Treating type 1 diabetes Complications of type 1 diabetes Living with type 1 diabetes.

About type 1 diabetes Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar glucose level to become too high. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood. Read more about the complications of type 1 diabetes Living with diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll need to look after your health very carefully.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can develop very quickly over a few days or weeks , particularly in children. When to seek urgent medical attention You should seek urgent medical attention if you have diabetes and develop: a loss of appetite nausea or vomiting a high temperature stomach pain fruity smelling breath — which may smell like pear drops or nail varnish others will usually be able to smell it, but you won't Hypoglycaemia low blood glucose If you have diabetes, your blood glucose levels can become very low.

Causes of type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce insulin. Autoimmune condition Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. Diagnosing type 1 diabetes It's important to diagnose diabetes as early as possible, so that treatment can be started. Urine and blood tests Your urine sample will be tested to see whether it contains glucose.

Glycated haemoglobin HbA1c The glycated haemoglobin HbA1c test is another blood test that can be used to diagnose diabetes.

Antibody tests There are blood tests for specific antibodies that can identify type 1 diabetes. However, you may need to have your HbA1c measured more frequently if: you've recently been diagnosed with diabetes your blood glucose remains too high your treatment plan has been changed Unlike other tests, such as the GTT, the HbA1c test can be carried out at any time of day and doesn't require any special preparation, such as fasting.

Treating type 1 diabetes Monitoring blood glucose An important part of your treatment is to make sure that your blood sugar level is as normal and stable as possible.

Explore: Type 1 Diabetes

Islet cell transplantation Some people with type 1 diabetes may benefit from a fairly new procedure known as islet cell transplantation. You may be suitable for an islet cell transplant if you've had: two or more severe hypos within the last two years and you have a poor awareness of hypoglycaemia a working kidney transplant, severe hypos and poor hypoglycaemia awareness, or poor blood glucose control even after receiving the best medical treatment You may not be suitable for an islet cell transplant if you: weigh over 85kg 13st 5.

Pancreas transplant People with type 1 diabetes who are having a kidney transplant from a donor may also be offered a pancreas transplant at the same time. The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: frequently passing urine thirst tiredness and lethargy lack of energy blurry vision abdominal stomach pain nausea and vomiting deep breathing smell of ketones on breath described as smelling like pear drops collapse and unconsciousness Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Your healthcare team will educate you on how to decrease your risk of ketoacidosis by testing your own blood for ketones using blood ketone sticks if you're unwell.

Other treatments Type 1 diabetes can lead to long-term complications. Care standards for diabetes The aim of treating diabetes is to help people with the condition control their blood glucose levels and minimise the risk of developing future complications.

Detecting Type 1 Diabetes

Complications of type 1 diabetes If diabetes isn't treated, it can lead to a number of different health problems. Nerve damage High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels of your nerves. Kidney disease If the small blood vessels in your kidney become blocked and leaky, your kidneys will work less efficiently. Foot problems Damage to the nerves of the foot can mean that small nicks and cuts aren't noticed, which can lead to a foot ulcer developing.

Living with type 1 diabetes Look after your feet Having diabetes means that you're more likely to develop problems with your feet, including foot ulcers and infections from minor cuts and grazes. Pregnancy If you have diabetes and you're thinking about having a baby, it's a good idea to discuss this with your diabetes care team. Education You'll be best equipped to manage your diabetes if you're given information and education when you're diagnosed, and then on an ongoing basis. Diabetes and your child For a parent whose child is diagnosed with a life-long condition, the job of parenting becomes even tougher.

Ask your care team for relevant leaflets about diabetes that you can take away. Know what care to expect: your child has the right to be treated by a specialist paediatric diabetes team, not just in a general paediatric clinic. You should also have access to a paediatric diabetes specialist nurse PDSN. Get emotional support and start talking: feelings of depression , guilt or anger are normal, so talk to your healthcare team or ask to see a psychologist for you or your child.

Ask to meet another family or go on a Diabetes UK family support weekend. This should cover who gives injections and monitors blood glucose and when and whether a private area is available if your child isn't comfortable injecting in front of their classmates. You can't be with your child 24 hours a day, so share responsibility and allow your family and friends to help.

If you have other children, make sure they get your attention too. Diabetes means low sugar, not no sugar.

Help and support Many people find it helpful to talk to others in a similar position, and you may find support from a group for people with diabetes. Financial support and benefits If your diabetes is controlled by medication, you're entitled to free prescriptions and eye examinations. Share Tweet Print. Source: NHS Insulin is a hormone that enables blood sugar to enter the cells in your body where it can be used for energy.

High blood sugar is damaging to the body and causes many of the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction the body attacks itself by mistake that destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, called beta cells. This process can go on for months or years before any symptoms appear. Being exposed to a trigger in the environment, such as a virus, is also thought to play a part in developing type 1 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes symptoms can develop in just a few weeks or months. Once symptoms appear, they can be severe. Some type 1 diabetes symptoms are similar to symptoms of other health conditions.

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Untreated diabetes can lead to very serious—even fatal—health problems. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are not as clear as for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, though family history is known to play a part. If your doctor thinks you have type 1 diabetes, your blood may also tested for autoantibodies substances that indicate your body is attacking itself that are often present with type 1 diabetes but not with type 2. You may have your urine tested for ketones produced when your body burns fat for energy , which also indicate type 1 diabetes instead of type 2.

Unlike many health conditions, diabetes is managed mostly by you, with support from your health care team including your primary care doctor, foot doctor, dentist, eye doctor, registered dietitian nutritionist, diabetes educator, and pharmacist , family, teachers, and other important people in your life.