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Jahrhundert in Mitteleuropa, ed. Helmut Reinalter Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, , — The great political trends which would later determine the history of the 19th century, nationalism, conservatism and—the product of the Enlightenment, in particular of Kant—liberalism began to take on recognizable contours. Although the development of statehood in the Empire had been completed in the territories—a cultural Germany came into being at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century.

In contrast to the countryside, the contours of the city began to become less pronounced. Only recently, parallel to a return to a more positive assessment of the Holy Roman Empire, tendencies can also be registered towards a reevaluation of the imperial cities in the last century of their history. Rausch, — Eger ed. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, , or W. Ribbe, Geschichte Berlins Munich, C. Many of these changes did not stem directly from burgher origins, and the new innovations did not always enjoy broad acceptance, especially within smaller towns.

Jahrhundert Innsbruck: TyroliaVerlag, A library of this kind represented even among the higher strata an exception. Inventories of bequethed property in Frankfurt allow further insights into the reading habits of the middle strata of burghers in the 16th and 17th centuries. Even Christoph Mann, servant of a certain Dr. Rolf Engelsing has developed several basic principles for research into this area. Even around , books with almost exclusively religious contents were to be found almost everywhere. In the second half of the 18th century the number of newly launched periodicals rose dramatically.

Ten percent of some 2, publications dealt with literature—the structural transformation of free-time led to a growing demand for entertainment. An important paradigmatic study, with an interdisciplinary approach, has been written by Hazel Rosenstrauch. A number of questions still demand a more precise answer.

Which books were read, particularly in the case of the smaller towns? What music and which plays were performed there? Reich — A year later, the book could be found in German and was quickly followed by other utopian novels. After numerous disputes, an ideal community emerges, burgher virtues and genuine Christianity with a Protestant bias color human relations.

Honesty, trust in God, an ethics of hard work, and the ability to achieve success, likewise economic skill—these are the qualities of the heroes of this and other tales with a background similar to Robinson Crusoe; civic qualities which proved themselves in the cultivation of nature and the foundation of rational, organized communities. The image of the ideal state which unfolds in this work by an original writer appears to be a call for the exclusive literary circles which Klopstock was to found half a decade later. Certainly, these landscapes are expressions of a longing which seem to have reached its destination: the light of Claude Lorraine, which shimmers through many of the landscapes of Hackert and his contemporaries, is the light of Italy.

With the end of this freedom, so began the fall of Greek culture. The tradition of the admirer extended from Heinse and Moritz up to Jacob Burckhardt, whose thought perhaps for a last time made the sublimation functions visible which Winckelmann aesthetics could assume in the sinking world of old Europe. Pictures of German Burgher Culture during the Early Modern Period: Some Remarks Concerning Quellenkritik When the German edition of this book was published in it was not yet exactly en vogue to take paintings, architecture, and other objects in addition to texts seriously as historical sources.

The idea that one might read art works as semantic structures was unusual— at least in Germany. Today this is no longer the case. A linguistic turn in cultural studies seems to have been followed by an iconic turn, and historians are beginning to discover art works as sources. Francis Haskell described the long pre-history of this development in his inspiring book, History and its Images. This is the point of departure for his famous book, The Autumn of the Middle Ages. New Haven: Yale University Press, Rodney J. Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch. Studie over levens- en gedachtenvormen der veertiende en vijftiende eeuw in Frnkrijk en de Nederlanden.

Haarlem: H. Tjeenk Willink, The great cultural histories show examples, and a lot of these works are still important today because they make rich material accessible in the form of visual documents. But all this has not yet been made available systematically. One consistently reverts to Netherlandish art when the life of the burghers of the sixteenth and seventeenth century has to be illustrated—such as the enchanting interior decorations of Vermeer, Pieter de Hooch or Gabriel Metsu and other masters of the Golden Age.

In other words, in the Netherlands the possibility of religiously motivated investments in art was limited. Even costly sepulchral art remained uncommon and was reserved for regents or naval heroes—e. On the other hand, the means for cultural investment were available abundantly in the trading nation. Reliable estimates suggest that about 50, pictures were painted yearly in the Netherlands during the seventeenth century! Important preconditions for the encroachment of new genres can be found in these circumstances.

An interpretation of Dutch culture in the Golden Age. New York: Knopf, Studies in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Culture. It was an integral component of Netherlandish identity, more than in any other European country, except possibly Switzerland, which started its path to independence much earlier. In the German empire, the courts of the worldly and clerical rulers and the Viennese imperial court dictated cultural patterns.

The paintings and their topics therefore can function as subtle indicators for certain aspects of cultural, political, and social relations. Kunstwerke als Zeugen ihrer Zeit. Von der Renaissance zur Revolution. The ideal of the painter was to show the world as his aesthetic glance perceived it. Comparison with meteorological results demonstrates that Netherlandish painters did paint real weather conditions—and also realistic types of clouds. But in almost every instance aesthetic priorities, the demands of composition, for example, and accuracy of detail dominated—for instance, when Aert van der Neer represents a sunset over a winter landscape.

On late cold winter afternoons, meteorologists agree, cumulus clouds as van Neer painted them almost never occur. The comparison of painted clouds with real weather conditions is extremely interesting for historians who use art works as sources because it demonstrates very clearly the limits of the interpretation of images. Regarding the iconological interpretation of genre paintings, truth seems to lie somewhere in the middle. Even Svetlana Alpers does not reject completely the thesis that Netherlandish art contained encoded messages.

She objects only to the extremes of this approach. No comparable discussion concerning early modern German art, and especially genre painting, has yet developed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, For less current allegories they requested a decoding by the humanist scholar. Many of those who ordered paintings of their interiors or their houses, or bought a still life, perhaps really did not want anything other than reproductions of their houses or of a standard still-life motif.

In looking at the representations of the burgher environment we must expect a certain degree of encoding. Another point is that we usually are dealing with forced stagings, such as the skies over Dutch winter landscapes. Of course this applies generally to questions regarding the reality of images. Regensburg: Pustet, , pp. Representations of Saint Joseph show casually which tools a carpenter used. Occasionally we also see objects themselves, such as furniture, crockery, religious items mainly from the sphere of the upper strata which allow conclusions about burgher life at the beginning of the modern era.

And there are buildings, and especially inventories, which give information about room use and the placement of objects. But as a whole, the rare representations of burgher interiors normally show an ennobled version of the Protestant burgher ambience, which once was characterized as a consequence of the Reformation: orderliness, crockery shelves with plentiful silver and gold, beautiful furniture and panelling, the family members arranged as harmonic compositions—the father mostly in a position that emphasizes his importance, his glance and gesture those of a man of gravitas—of graveness and strictness.

Before the seventeenth century, in Germany there are hardly any examples of such interior views of burgher households or workshops, arguably for the reasons mentioned above. These images helped elites to emphasize the historical basis of their position: the images served the invention of tradition, not coincidentally at a time of grave crisis in urban society. In the Middle Ages it was long considered to be idolatry to copy the external appearance of people. The preconditions for this development are complex; the deciding factor would seem to have been a long-term process of secularization, which meant that a new and higher importance was accorded to individuals.

Among the early examples of portrait art, depictions of popes and princes stand out. These are the major contexts in which the history of burgher portraits of the German cultural sphere belong. That the beginning of this tradition reached Germany through economic and cultural contacts with Italy and Flanders cannot be doubted. What value do such depictions and selfportraits have for cultural history? Even so, historical narratives are full of physiognomical sketches of their main characters, which often emanate from the pictorial tradition;14 such things are admittedly easy to read, satisfy curiosity, or help to envision historical events.

But usually it is not essential for historical analysis to know what kind of physiognomy the dramatis personae would have had. These relationships form a network in the context of which the art work can be situated. Many early modern portraits do not show the subjects as they actually looked, but as they wanted to be seen and then commissioned themselves to be painted or carved in stone; they may then reveal something about political and social strategies, and about religious attitudes.

A further function of realistic representations leads us into the religious mentality of female and male burghers at the turning point from the Middle Ages to modern times. Sometimes they were modelled on death masks. The painters by no means produced only ideal pictures. A further unsolved problem of a historical image-hermeneutics is how the autonomous portrait relates to such religious representations.

Does the image of the individual belong to the context of the same development in the history of piety that brought forth realistic pictures of founders? Berkeley: University of California Press, Autonomous portraits already appeared in the burgher sphere before the Reformation, but they become really numerous only thereafter. This might follow a logic similar to that of developments in the above-mentioned Dutch art market—namely with the absence of a whole market segment, i.

Any attempt to test this hypothesis will have to deal with sixteenth-century portraits as an important source. At the same time the question of the prestige function of art concerning burgher self-presentation in particular which of course does not result only from portraits requires attention, as well as the resulting question of social identity. Such portrait types can hardly be found before the second decade of the sixteenth century and derive, when they do appear, from the world of the nobility and the court.

His self-representation corresponds to a lifestyle that was also aristocratic in other ways. The Zurich ensign Jacob Schwytzer was portrayed by Tobias Stimmer in a quite similar fashion in Beispiele aus Deutschland und Italien, in: idem, Kunstpatronage, pp. But every generation invents its history anew, imagines it in new ways. Popular perceptions of the early modern culture of the bourgeoisie and its lived environment are formed to this day largely by stereotypes and especially by images that the nineteenth century produced for its own purposes.

Their national pride was based on the literature of German classicism, on the music of Bach, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert, on German philosophy from Kant to Hegel and also on the pre-history of this inimitable epoch. They were busily discovering the artistic achievements of burghers in the early modern period, their music and literature.

But scholarly attention was not the only compliment paid to this idea. Rather, the bourgeoisie appropriated these insights into the past, as well as artefacts for use in building their own burgher habitus. History was, so to speak, an aspect of their current lifestyle.

They read historical novels, and historical costumes were preferred disguises for carnival. Wagner himself is, by the way, the classic 21 See Klaus Vondung, ed. In the nineteenth century, the burgher culture of the late Middle Ages and of the early modern period became available even for use in living rooms. A gaudy neo-Renaissance style, in oak, was all the rage.

It even spilled over to tableware and started to determine the topics of pictures. Such teachings also found an echo in the German bourgeoisie. The other side of the Renaissance, accessible through the symbolic milieu of neo-Renaissance dwellings and the books that were read there, is defensive. These anti-modernist roots are reminiscent of the preconditions of pre-Raphaelite art and the Arts-and-Crafts movement in Victorian England. People wanted to create spaces to which to withdraw, islands of history in a hectic present.

With that he names a precondition of historicism and perhaps a timeless motif of historical research. His opus in several volumes was a work of typographic art, and merely by virtue of its form an argument against modernity and modernism. One can add to his statement a formulation that gives an explanation for the historical conception of living styles and at the same time illuminates the reasons for historicism in general.

They are the scholarly equivalents of the historical novels and the neo-Renaissance. Faust, beginning with the Historia von D. Johann Faust, the famous magician and necromancer. This book, printed anonymously in , was an amalgam of medieval versions. Beck, , vol. III, pp. He becomes the German Prometheus and at the same time a prototype of the German scholar in his magnitude and banality, his brilliance and abjection: Einstein and Dr.

Mengele, Faust is both in one person. His creator also came from the world of the burghers, and it was above all bourgeois theater audiences who consumed the Faust plays. Even his failure turns out to be grandiose. They became part of the national, the collective memory, which uses precisely these pictures and buildings, memorials and literature as a legitimating backdrop.

A contemporary image does not exist. Or consider Christmas, in Germany still the most important celebration—the family gathers around the Christmas tree, candles shine, colourful balls shimmer and everyone sings—which took on its idealtypical formulation through pictures only in the nineteenth century, although its origins date back until the year , when the 25th of December was declared the birthday of Christ. Until the nineteenth century, Christmas was one of many feasts, with a Christmas market and amusements for the young people.

Translated by Mary Trouille under the direction of David P. Historical Research and Review 2 , pp. Der Deutschen liebste Feier: Weihnachten. Kleve, Eine Kultur- und Sozialgeschichte, Stuttgart, It is an independent economic entity, a bourgeois enclave in the countryside, the opposite pole of the modern, industrial world, of mass society. It illustrates the German unity of bourgeois family life—the opposite of the celibate existence of Catholic priests—, Protestant education and national spirit.

In the GDR, parsonage and church were areas of relative freedom, and the impulses that would topple the dictatorship of the SED emerged from here, among other places. But there is just as little doubt that the basic reality that the Reformation could not have survived except in league with the German princely state became a deep historical experience which produced a basic respect on the part of Protestant Germans for the state and the establishment. The conspirators of the 20th of July spent many nights discussing the right of resistance rather than practicing the handling of bombs and explosives, which would have been more practical.

Enmity against Jews and generally against foreigners also left its marks in the culture of the German bourgeoisie. Since the late Middle Ages the Jews had been murdered and expelled, the gypsies excluded, minorities distrusted and suppressed,36 and negative cultural codes arose which contributed to the formation of a particularist German identity.

Elimination, destruction—as it were the creation of empty spaces—also belongs to any picture of the German past. Until , Germans lived in an empire which was eternal, holy and universal, at least in theory in the eighteenth century Voltaire jeered that the Holy Roman [German] Empire was neither holy, Roman nor an empire. As a matter of fact, until the time of Voltaire, the Germans felt themselves to be primarily Saxons, Prussians, Bavarians or burghers of their imperial city.

I, pp. They aimed to cleanse the German language and therefore also to create a German national culture. With the construction of the spiritual empire of German culture, the music of Austrians like Haydn or Schubert and, for example, the art of southern Italy under the Staufen and even the painting of Rembrandt could be appropriated and naturalized.

So the German Renaissance was invented— which we already have met in the burgher households of the late 38 See Augustinus P. Vordenker des Nationalsozialismus im Ein schwieriges Erbe, Munich: C. Beck, , p. The same Pinder in professed, along with other German scholars, an ardent commitment to Adolf Hitler and to the National Socialist state.

Trying to grasp a national culture before the genesis of a national state is in fact a paradox. Milan: Bompiani, , pp. But these are questions that go far beyond the topic of this book. He bequeathed, besides his paintings and an extensive artistic oeuvre, theoretical writings and a remarkable correspondence. In — and — he travelled to Venice and to some other Italian cities in search of inspiration for his own art in what was then the cultural centre of Europe. His travels and especially his woodcuts and engravings made him the most important agent of the cultural transfer between the North and the South.

One of his letters from Venice shows that Italians, in this respect very modern, appreciated him for both his humanistic learning and his painting. Schriftlicher Nachlass. Hans Rupprich ed. Berlin Translation: Olga E. Pollack, Dr. Andrew C. I: pp. II: p. Venice, 7th of February I have to laugh at them myself whenever they speak to me. They know that one knows them to be quite wicked, but they do not inquire into what one knows.

I have many good friends among the Italians who warn me not to eat and drink with their painters. And many of them are quite hostile to me and take down my works in the churches wherever they can get their hands on them. Or they complain and say that it is not antique art and hence not good.

However, Giovanni Bellini praised me very much in front of the noblemen. He wanted to have something from me and he himself came to me and asked me to make something for him and source one he would pay well for it. And all the people told me that he is a pious person, so at once I was fond of him. He is very old and is still the best in painting. And the picture I liked so much eleven years ago, I do not fancy anymore.


Full text of "German Histories in the Age of Reformations, "

And if I had not seen it myself, I would not have believed anyone else. Also I want to let you know that there are much better painters here as Master Jacob back home. But Anthoni Kolb swears that there is no better painter on earth than Jacob. The others mock him and say: if he were as good as that, he would stay here, etc.

And only today I started to sketch my plate. My hands were so chapped that I could not work, so I had someone else do the engraving. Venice, 13th of October I had to give the master one ducat; no-one could make me give more. I would have liked to have lost all that I had won, and yet at the end I could not do it. I will send you a sample of your paper. I thought that Kepler the bookbinder Sebald Kepler had more.

However, I could not get the feathers you wanted to have. So I bought white feathers.

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If I should get the green ones, I will buy those and bring them with me. I have already ordered them, but they are expensive. I could not get more of them and will send them with the next messenger. I would like to know from you when I should come, so my masters can act accordingly. After that I will ride to Bologna to take some lessons in the art of perspective, which someone has promised to teach me. Eight or ten days later I will leave and ride to Venice. Afterwards I will come with the next stage. O, how I will shiver in the sun. Here I am a lord, at home a scrounger, etc.

But what beauty is, I do not know. However, I will say, what it means to me: to that which has been considered beautiful by most people—to that we should aspire. Any lack in a thing is a defect. Hence: too much and too little spoil every thing. In eight chapters Cochlaeus presents a detailed view of German history, its regions, and cities. The following excerpt is taken from the fourth chapter, which is probably the most famous in this little book: it is a very clear description of the imperial city of Nuremberg, more precisely a hymn to a city that was, with Cologne and Augsburg, one of the three largest German cities in the 16th century.

Source: Cochlaeus, Johannes. Brevis Germanie Descriptio Mit der Deutschlandkarte des Erhard Etzlaub von Karl Langosch ed. Darmstadt The moat stretches across a breadth of twenty ells and is almost as deep. Besides there are former moats and traces of old walls, still visible in the inner town, but they are displaced by new buildings from day to day. It is secured fully by gates. Besides, they have six large and two small gates. It is very clean on account of an aqueduct. Moreover, they have an aqueduct, which has been directed into various streets and is suited for washing away the dirt, and quite useful to butchers, dyers and tanners.

Furthermore, they have public wells and 23 channels or pipes. The town hall. The market of the merchants. If you go down to the market place you will see merchants, who are very attractive, tall, and well dressed; as well as a pyramidal fountain, covered with a great deal of gold and decorated with many skilfully sculpted statues, which provides water abundantly in 16 pipes for all sorts of uses. Councilmen responsible for trade policy regarding inhabitants of Nuremberg.

The breadth of the terrain is rather limited: on the one side runs the Pegnitz, but on the other are vineyards and orchards, where lovely bird-songs resound. The three classes of people. The population is so large that in fact it falls into three classes, the patricians, the merchants and the common people. They also establish justice outside the city walls, and they do this so conscientiously that they pay high salaries to a large armed force which polices the woods and public roads to prevent robbery.

The hospitals. There are two hospitals, of which one has so many clergymen, choirboys, students and paupers that there is not one more excellent or even comparable in Germany. There are also two houses for twelve brothers, for men, I mean, who are worn out by age and poverty. One of these houses was built recently by a citizen at a cost of 15, gold guilders and endowed with incomes for maintenance. There are also hostels for pilgrims.

Sebald, where the patricians and their wives serve them at table. Pious foundations. Furthermore there are many pious foundations: some to support citizens who have been weakened by misfortune, a 4 Tempe Valley: One of the most beautiful valleys in Greece. Source: Hans Sachs und die Meistersinger in ihrer Zeit.

Johannes Karl Wilhelm Willers ed. Nuremberg The daylight is near. I hear a beautiful nightingale Singing in the green grove. Her voice rises over mountains and valleys. The night sinks down in the West, The day breaks in the East. The crimson sunrise Shines through the dim clouds, And the bright sunlight breaks through. It pushes aside the light of the moon.

He describes in it the rites de passage that shaped the life of an early modern European: baptisms, weddings, and funerals. In one passage, the report on his youth allows us to imagine how, already in earliest childhood, an imaginary world of ghosts, spectres and witches was planted in the minds of the people. Here we notice the prerequisites in the world of mentality for the witch-panics of the following era.

Basel Andrew Colin Gow, Dr. Peter Bietenholz. At that time the old women spoke often about ghosts. I listened wholeheartedly to them, but thereby became nervous and fearful so that I could not stay alone nowhere, and specially I could not sleep alone at night. Therefore I did not want to stay alone at night. November , wedding at the minster As the wedding people gathered at our place, we went in a procession to the house of my father-in-law.

And D.

Oswald Ber walked next to me. He, although he was quite old, was dressed in red too with a low-necked, silken doublet made of atlas and a gown of camel hair. She was lead by Mr. Henric Petri because Mr. Hans, who had promised it a long time ago to do it , excused himself for the sake of illness. But then he came to the wedding after all where he even danced. After the sermon we were given together were married.

I led the bride inside, who got many presents in the upper parlour. Fifteen tables were set up and all of them were well occupied with more than persons without those who served us and of whom a good amount joined us for dessert. Theodor Brandt. Supposedly the text is about hair-bands, a kind of an initiation for young girls.

The judgment was given to burn this all. One gave his things over to the executioner, who took them outside as one would do with a culprit. These things were brought in front of the stone gate to the ordinary Richtplatz. He smashed it to pieces so that everyone could see the corpse, which was covered with a robe of camel hair. He set him up. He was still quiet unscathed and still recognizable, the eyes were cavernous and closed. A huge crowd and I with Sebastiano Castellone were watching the scene. Place of execution. The following excerpt is taken from an English translation from It extensively follows the text of the revised work from The Schoole of Slovenrie or Cato turnd wrong side outward.

What manners and gestures the guest ought to observe in eating. Chapter II. Snatch that you like, I told you so before, you know it well, It is but labour lost that I againe the same should tell. That which I once have told to you, you never should refuse, But in each place and companie you boldly must it use.

And speake so lowde that all may heare thee which are then in place, For by this meanes thou maist in jeast the carefull cooke disgrace. And by this tricke thou wilt deserve a civill yonkers name, And happy is he nowadayes which can attaine such fame. It is not good for him which would be praisde of all men, long To sit amongst his friends at meate, not using of his tong. When thou arte set, devoure as much as thou with health canst eate, Thou therefore wert to dinner bid to helpe away his meate. Thrust in as much into thy throate as thou canst snatch or catch, And with the gobbets which thou eatst, thy jawes and belly stretch.

If with thy meate thou burne thy mouth, then cloake it craftely, That others mayaswell as thou partake that miserie. To throw thy meate from out thy mouth into the dish againe I dare not bid thee, for it is too clownish and too plaine. If to thy neighbours face thou turne, I will thee much commend, And store of breath and pottage to his cheekes be sure to send.

If thus thou doost, all will applaude thee and thy trickes allow, And often will desire to learne this pretty jeast of you. This dog sir hath a maister heere that will his deedes upholde. When you are almost wearie, and desire your teeth to rest, Then, that your puppie make you merrie, it is surely best. Whenas you eate, stretch wide your iaws, and thrust great gobets down, grobianus Even as the cheekes are stretcht with wind of some song-tuning clowne.

It is not meete that in the dish you should leave anie meate: That which your hoste dooth set upon the boord, he would have eat. Tis better farre to stand in feare of breaking of a gut, Than leave one bit of that which is upon the Table put. I pray, whie is it hurtfull thus to mingle meate with drinke? If they be mingled thorowly, they nourish more, I thinke. That meate and drinke should thus be ioynd Nature her selfe hath saide, For in this world one thing doth still desire anothers aide.

The bones and scraps, and such things as thou scornst thy selfe to eate, Throw down amongst the dogs, how can they live without some meate? Each dog regarding his owne dinner, none will quiet be. For want of victualls you a pleasant battell there shall see. Of devouring, laughing, vomiting, and other civilities at the Table. But yet, although thou of thy selfe arte better learned than I, To teach thee some few needefull things I will presume to try.

Oft times, when yong men would be counted pleasant, I have seene source five At that same instant, when their harts full light with wine have beene, That they with good bread would their unprovided fellowes hit, And eke with meate, which they into their hands could closely get. They doe reioyce their youthfull hearts with such bad kindes of play, Whereby they may the lingring times the sooner drive away. I dare not be so bold as unto olde men rules to give, Because their age doth priviledge them as they list to live. But yoong men, if they will attend, may quickely learne of mee, What manners seemely at their feasts and what unseemely bee.

The bread as each man knowes dooth use to have a double crust, The one whereof in purenesse needes excell the tother must. Wherefore observe the counsell which thou shalt receive of me, With good advise, and men will thinke thee wondrous wise to bee. For by this crust your body from much loosenesse keepe you may, And if the laske doe trouble you, this will it quickely stay. But if the crust without the crumme you dare not cut for shame, Although I thinke your shamefastnesse will never get you fame, And you had rather in that place more mannerly to be, Then have a care that crust and crumme be tooke alike of thee.

It is a wondrous gift of God to men that mortall are, If that which they with paines have got, with paines they eke can spare. Or if thou likst not this, because thou knowst that at this time Thou at anothers table and anothers cost doost dine: Then care not, for tis easie at anothers boord to live, In this case thou most freely without any losse maist give.

I spying these, upon my trencher foorthwith did them sweepe, This was an order which my mother alwayes bade me keepe. If that you thinke these manners will not to you hurtfull be, My counsell is that you in this example take by me. It sometimes fals out unawares, as you your vittailes eate, Into your throate there slips a bone together with your meate: Which either makes your loosened teeth to smite against your gumme, Or stops the way by which your meate into your throate should come.

What meanst thou man? Why dost not thou prevent this hurt no more? Why seekest thou no meanes thy halfe lost life for to restore? Take counsell of thy hands, and holding ope thy mouth with one, With tother pull from out thy jawes that hurtfull sticking bone. The dynamics and thermodynamics of great cosmical systems are nearly independent of the theory of gravitation and only the fine-structure of cosmogony and cosmology reflects the special hypotheses.

The neutrality against the concret gravodynamics is a consequence of the fundamental properties of gravitation: the principlies of equivalence of gravity and inertia. Das Pyoderma gangraenosum PG ist eine seltene, inflammatorische destruktiv-ulzerierende neutrophile Erkrankung mit weitgehend unklarer Pathophysiologie. In dieser Studie wurden die potenziell relevanten Kofaktoren und Begleiterkrankungen von Patienten mit PG aus drei dermatologischen Wundzentren in Deutschland differenziert ausgewertet.

Thematische Einheiten erweitern den Wissensstoff - u. Biologie statt Philosophie? Die Frage nach der menschlichen Selbstverortung begegnet uns in dieser Figur, und sie bestimmt viele Zeugnisse menschlichen Nachdenkens, welche uns die Altertumswissenschaften vorlegen. Und wie kann der Mensch beides zugleich sein? Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Persistierende Infektionen mit humanen Papillomviren sind die notwendige Ursache des Zervixkarzinoms. Der Fokus liegt jetzt auf der Integration von neuen Testverfahren im Screening von Populationen mit zunehmenden Impfraten.

Wir lernen einige wichtige Werkstoffeigenschaften kennen. Strom hinausgehen. The Humboldtian educational ideal is based on the idea of the unity of teaching and research in universities "Einheit von Forschung und Lehre". The role of the state, according to Humboldt, was to fund universities in such a way that their autonomy was maintained. Much has changed in the funding mechanisms of higher education systems…. Federal Register , , , , This condition, if Programs,'' describes in more detail the scope of the Agency's authority. We are issuing this rulemaking Grief in Children und Adolescents as a Result of Acute Traumatization Specifities of grief in children after trauma will be presented as well as potential reactions to acute traumatization and resulting needs of children and adolescents in order to discuss adequate interventions.

Ihre Wirksamkeit wurde in zahlreichen validen, gut kontrollierten Studien belegt. Restrospektive Studie zur Analyse von klinischen Merkmalen, videodermatoskopischen Bildern, histopathologischen Diagnosen und Behandlungsergebnissen.

"The Art of Losing" - Relecting Elisabeth Bishop

Der Grad der Pigmentierung wurde sowohl klinisch als auch histopathologisch beurteilt. Anwendung und Pflege des neuen Systems dienen soil, wenn die entscheidenden Vorgaben bereits durch die Deckelung gegeben sind. Oder denkt man an den Software und die da- mit verbundenen Lizenzgebuhren, sondern auch in der Folge um die Schulung der Mitarbeiter sowie die Pflege und Weiterentwicklung Es mossen jedoch klare.

The two Kaiser Wilhelm-Institutes KWI in Berlin , new building and in Munich , new building , specialized on pathologic anatomical as well as psychiatric genetic research, were set up before times of National Socialism. Commemorating patients' fates and clarifying what happened defines a place of remembrance. Using data from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration EIA , a technique is developed to estimate the monthly consumption of solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuels for each state in the union.

This technique employs monthly sales data to estimate the relative monthly proportions of the total annual carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use for all states in the union. Recently, annual emissions per U. To determine the success of this technique, the individual state results are compared to the annual state totals calculated by CDIAC. Comparing the results from these two methods permits an improved understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of both estimation techniques.

The primary advantages of the UND approach are its ease of implementation, the improved spatial and temporal resolution it can produce, and its universal applicability. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA — im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren — sehr gut infizieren. This study was aimed at exploring the wishes of rehabilitants, their attitudes towards and experiences with the various aspects of the "Wunsch- und Wahlrecht" as well as their criteria in choosing a rehabilitation centre. A total of 10 open guided focus groups were conducted with 71 male and female participants from 5 different indications and aged between 26 and 80 years.

Transcripts were analyzed by means of a summary content analysis. Persons applying for medical rehabilitation benefits did not as a rule get information about their "Wunsch- und Wahlrecht" during the application process. Applying for post-hospital rehabilitation often meant to be faced with an only allegedly existing choice "pseudo Wunsch- und Wahlrecht". The participants objected only rarely to this missing share in decision-making. Most of them did not care about their rights to choose a rehab centre if only the application for rehabilitation was allowed.

Various arguments were brought forward against the "Wunsch- und Wahlrecht", especially insufficient information about and time for enforcement and implementation of the "Wunsch- und Wahlrecht". Many participants had reflected only little about choosing a specific rehab centre when applying for rehabilitation. Accordingly, most of the participants had difficulties to mention possible selection criteria.

On the whole, applicants have Only little knowledge about the "Wunsch- und Wahlrecht". This complicates its implementation. Organisationsaspekte in der Umsetzung. Der wichtigste Risikofaktor war die Gesamtzahl der verabreichten Medikamente. Die Arzneimittelgruppen, die bei der Mehrzahl der Wechselwirkungen beteiligt waren, waren Analgetika, Herz-Kreislauf-Medikamente und gerinnungshemmende Medikamente sowie Antidepressiva.

Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt. Abschnitt 1. They were never systematically investigated. The authors present here some results of a first evaluation. It was possible to reconstruct the historical events with regard to the maintenance of the Astronomische Nachrichten and the Altona observatory in Hansen was a successful teacher for many young astronomers.

His way of stimulating the evolution of astronomy followed Zach's tradition. Quantitative Fragestellungen Tumorausdehnung, Infiltrationstiefe, etc. Zeitschrift fur erziehungs-- und sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung Journal for Education and Social Sciences Research , 11 issues. Zeitschrift fur erziehungs--und socialwissenschaftliche Forschung Journal for Education and Social Sciences Research , Recognizing a growing globalization of nations and cultures, "Zeitschrift fur erziehungs-- und sozialwissenchaftliche Forschung" brings together educational and social science research topics that address the interactions between education and society in their pedagogical, social, physical, economic, legal, and administrative dimensions.

Bisher liegen lediglich Daten aus einer kleinen Pilotstudie vor. Es wurden Daten von Patienten ausgewertet. Unter der Kombinationstherapie verbesserten sich alle Wirksamkeitsparameter deutlich. Allgemein wurde die Kombinationstherapie gut vertragen. Laut einer Befragung im Jahre war der Umgang mit Antithrombotika bei dermatochirurgischen Eingriffen in Deutschland sehr heterogen. Eine Zunahme des leitlinienkonformen Verhaltens war bei allen Eingriffen zu verzeichnen. Treatment with ofloxacin or synthetic trehalose dicorynemycolate S.

From to , ,, human beings were sterilised by force in the German Reich. Patient records were analysed with respect to predefined criteria. Age, sex and diagnosis were found to be criteria relevant for selection of patients for sterilisation. Nichtinterventionelle Studie bei erwachsenen Patientinnen mit leichter bis mittelschwerer Akne.

Im Gesamtkollektiv wurden vier Melanome diagnostiziert, davon zwei zerebrale Melanome im Kindesalter, ein kutanes Melanom im Erwachsenenalter und eines, das sich als proliferierender Knoten erwies. Bei vier Kindern wurde eine neurokutane Melanozytose festgestellt, drei davon mit neurologischer Symptomatik.

Experimental design, limitations and application boundaries are discussed and methods are compared against each other. The quality of the predictive methods strongly depends on the experimental design and the sample type. Theoretical construction in physics - The role of Leibniz for Weyl's 'Philosophie der Mathematik und Naturwissenschaft'. This paper aims at closing a gap in recent Weyl research by investigating the role played by Leibniz for the development and consolidation of Weyl's notion of theoretical symbolic construction.

For Weyl, just as for Leibniz, mathematics was not simply an accompanying tool when doing physics-for him it meant the ability to engage in well-guided speculations about a general framework of reality and experience. The paper first introduces some of the background of Weyl's notion of theoretical construction and then discusses particular Leibnizian inheritances in Weyl's 'Philosophie der Mathematik und Naturwissenschaft', such as the general appreciation of the principles of sufficient reason and of continuity.

Afterwards the paper focuses on three themes: first, Leibniz's primary quality phenomenalism, which according to Weyl marked the decisive step in realizing that physical qualities are never apprehended directly; second, the conceptual relation between continuity and freedom; and third, Leibniz's notion of 'expression', which allows for a certain type of surrogative reasoning by structural analogy and which gave rise to Weyl's optimism regarding the scope of theoretical construction.

Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - Learning about soil diversity and soil functions with cartoon characters. The learning material consists of i a large poster dimensions x cm showing an imaginative illustrated landscape that could be situated in Austria, Switzerland or southern Germany and ii a set of 15 magnetic cards that show different soil cartoon characters, e.

Bruno Braunerde Cambisol , Stauni Pseudogley Stagnic Luvisol or Heidi Podsol Podzol on the front and a fun profession and address linked to the respective soil functions on the back side. The task is to place the soil cartoon characters to their 'home' in the landscape. The soil cartoon characters are an adaptation of the original concept by the James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland www. Der Studienaufenthalt von Dr. Online irrigation service for fruit und vegetable crops at farmers site. Online irrigation service for fruit und vegetable crops at farmers site by W. Janssen, German Weather Service, Offenbach Agrowetter irrigation advice is a product which calculates the present soil moisture as well as the soil moisture to be expected over the next 5 days for over 30 different crops.

It's based on a water balance model and provides targeted recommendations for irrigation. Irrigation inputs according to the soil in order to avoid infiltration and, as a consequence thereof, the undesired movement of nitrate and plant protectants into the groundwater. This interactive 'online system' takes into account the user's individual circumstances such as crop and soil characteristics and the precipitation and irrigation amounts at the user's site.

Each user may calculate up to 16 different enquiries simultaneously different crops or different emergence dates. The user can calculate the individual soil moistures for his fields with a maximum effort of 5 minutes per week only. The sources of water are precipitation and irrigation whereas water losses occur due to evapotranspiration and infiltration of water into the ground.

The evapotranspiration is calculated by multiplying a reference evapotranspiration maximum evapotranspiration over grass with the so-called crop coefficients kc values that have been developed by the Geisenheim Research Centre, Vegetable Crops Branch. Kc values depending on the crop and the individual plant development stage. The reference evapotranspiration is calculated from a base weather station user has chosen out of around weather stations using Penman method based on daily values. After chosen a crop and soil type the user must manually enter the precipitation data measured at the site, the irrigation water inputs and the dates for a few phenological stages.

Economical aspects can be considered by changing the values of soil moisture from which recommendations for irrigation start from optimal to necessary plant supply. Natural Attenuation-Untersuchungen "ehemalige Abfalldeponie Osterhofen". Based on detailed site investigations it was evaluated whether natural attenuation NA may be used as a contaminated land management option at the site. Investigations were mainly based on the determination of contaminant mass flow rates by integral pumping tests and numerical conceptual modelling of the ammonium degradation.

Because oxygen supply into the plume is limited by transverse mixing a steady state plume of approx. Since beyond this reactive zone no further risk for groundwater arises, monitored natural attenuation MNA is an. Unter anderem wird ihnen eine antibakterielle Wirkung zugeschrieben. Extrakte auf Basis von Viscum album L. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas. Es wurden verschiedene Hapten-Protein-Konjugate unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Kopplungsmethoden hergestellt und charakterisiert.

Diese Werte korrelieren mit den Werten der wenigen bekannten Diphenylcarbamat-spaltenden Abzyme. Dies beweist, dass die Hydrolyse in der Antigenbindungsstelle stattfindet. PhD-Thesis, Univ. LANG, M. AVN , S. Der geo- ddtische Beitrag zu dern interdisziplinlren Forschungsprojekt. Es sind dabei zwei Entwicklungslinien festzustellen. Die eine ver- sucht, die in der Statistik entwickelte Theorie auf geodaitische Hampel, F.

Kathetersysteme sowie als Langzeitimplantate z. The wish for annihilation in 'love-death' as collapse of the need for recognition, in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. Wagner's Tristan und Isolde holds a central position in Western music and culture. It is shown to demonstrate consequences of interruption of developmental processes involving the need for recognition of subjectivity, resulting in the collapse of this need into the wish for annihilation of self and other through 'love-death' [Liebestod]. A close reading of the musical language of the opera reveals how this interruption is demonstrated, and the consequent location of identity outside of language, particularly suitable for expression in music.

Isolde's dynamics are presented as distinct from that of Tristan, and in contrast to other interpretations of Tristan and Isolde's love as an attack on the Oedipal order, or as a regressive wish for pre-Oedipal union. Isolde's Act I narrative locates the origin of her desire in the protagonists' mutual gaze at a traumatic moment. In this moment powerful and contrasting emotions converge, evoking thwarted developmental needs, and arousing the fantasy of redemption in love-death. By removing the magical elements, Wagner enables a deeper understanding of the characters' positions in relation to each other, each with his or her own needs for recognition and traumatic experiences.

These positions invite mutual identifications resulting in rising tension between affirmation of identity and annihilation, with actual death as the only possible psychic solution. The dynamics described in the opera demonstrate the function of music and opera in conveying meaning which is not verbally expressible. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden exemplarisch Chancen und Grenzen der Integration von Umwelt- und Naturschutz in Verfahren der ackerbaulichen Landnutzung aufgezeigt.

Dieses Konzept haben Heidt et al. Eine Auswahl der von Heidt et al. Quantensprung Digitalisierung - Energiewirtschaft im Energieversorger, die sich dem Wandel nicht stellen, drohen den Anschluss zu verpassen. The book laid the foundations for cell pathology as a scientific discipline and was the most important publication by Virchow, who as doctor and statesman gathered so much fame that he became almost a mythical figure in his own time.

The finding that every cell originates from another cell and does not develop from amorphous interstitium is actually attributable to Robert Remak. Konzeption, Entwicklung und Evaluierung eines Messsystems zur sortenreinen Klassifikation von fluoreszenzcodierten Kunststoffen im Rahmen des Kunststoff-Recyclings Conception, development and evaluation of a measuring system for the classification of fluorescence coded plastics within the framework of plastic recycling. Peter Andreas Hansen and the astronomical community - a first investigation of the Hansen papers.

We present here some results of a first evaluation. Jahrhunderts zu befassen. Supplement to: Astronomical ephemerides, navigation and war. Scans of the documents. Scans der Dokumente. In a previous paper Wielen R. We were able to use numerous archivalia which we also describe and comment in that paper. In the present paper, we publish colour scans of these archivalia. All the documents shown here are held in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut in Heidelberg.

Frauen, Bildung und Entwicklung. The author presents first steps towards a development-based concept of women's education in the industrialized countries. Some elements of this concept are: 1 planning and action in a global context, 2 the local or regional bias given to education, 3 promotion of an intercultural perspective, 4 reducing the power of structures that encourage oppression. This is because women are part of the overall system and contribute to its perpetuation in the measure of their own socialization.

Connections are established between the destruction of the environment and the individual, as also between the victims and assailants of racism and sexism with a view to clarifying unidentified parts of the female consciousness. Beyond this, the role of European women in the context of colonialism and the present contact between European women and their counterparts from other cultures are examined with particular attention being paid to the exercise of power and force in the family and society.

Audit of the journal "Strahlentherapie und Onkologie" Radiotherapy and Oncology ]. The statistical quality of the contributions to "Strahlentherapie und Onkologie" is assessed, aiming for improvement of the journal and consequently its impact factor. All articles published during and in the categories "review", "original contribution", and "short communication" were analyzed concerning actuarial analysis of time-failure data. One hundred and twenty-three publications without time-failure data were excluded from analysis.

Forty-five of the remaining 58 publications with time-failure data were evaluated actuarially. Complications were reported in 16 of 58 papers, but in only 3 cases actuarially. The number of patients at risk during the course of follow-up was documented adequately in 22 of the 45 publications with actuarial analysis. Authors, peer reviewers, and editors could contribute to improve the quality of the journal by setting value on acturial analysis of time-failure data.

Can the description of modern alchemy in Jung's Psychologie und Alchemie be really regarded as a historical reconstruction? In his work, Psychologie und Alchemie, published in , Jung wanted to present a reconstruction of alchemy. In order to do this he used a method of psychology, which he modified and enriched with inspirations drawn from neo-romantically-oriented German medical historiographies of the nineteen thirties.

Using historical materials, he intended to demonstrate the empirical character of his Depth Psychology, a widespread concept, ingrained in our supra-personal social unconscious. The present article questions the nature of Jung's reconstruction of alchemy as historical reconstruction.

The author presents the methodological bases referred to by Jung derived from his concept of medical practice and compares them with a manner of thinking typical of contemporary historical analysis. The article also presents Jung's inspirations from the medical historiography of his time, as well as the dissimilarity of his concept with the model of historical narrative construction in force in the historiography of the thirties and forties. At the same time, it presents the elements of the "romantic inheritance" in Jung's thought, drawn from the tradition of German non-materialistic medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century.

Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents.

First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation.

The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from The profits and perils of publicity: Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, the Thurn und Taxis Post, and the periodical trade at the end of the eighteenth century. After plausibility checks and corrections, analyses for service and cost homogeneity were performed.

In cases of inadequate DRG-representation attributes were sought that would make an appropriate reimbursement possible. Conspicuities and potential solutions were checked for clinical plausibility. Results: 44 concrete modification proposals for further development of the G-DRG system were formulated and submitted in due time to the InEK. For all modification proposals care was taken to minimise misdirected incentives and to reduce the potential for disputes with the cost bearers and their auditors services in settlements.

Discussion: The publication of the G-DRG system shows which modification proposals have been realised. Essentially, an appropriate redistribution of the resources among the gynaecological and obstetrics departments is to be expected. The financial pressure that is caused by the generally inadequate financing of hospitals will not be reduced by a further development of the G-DRG system. The analysis builds on recent work clarifying the specificity of some of these epimerases.

We find three well defined clades responsible for inter-conversion of the gluco- and galacto-configuration at C4 of different N-acetylhexosamines. This work brings clarity to an area that had become quite confusing. A table of the accession numbers for the proteins used in the analysis is provided to enable the major tree to be regenerated with the inclusion of additional proteins of interest.

This and other suggestions for annotation of 4-epimerase genes will facilitate annotation. Werner Heisenberg zum Geburtstag: Pionier der Quantenmechanik. Farewell to Diversity? Presenting current policies and alternative policy options discussed at the local level for providing primary health care in rural China, we argue that decisions made in the implementation process did not respond to the special health needs of mobile pastoralists in the high plains, but were part of the central state logic of homogenising settlement efforts and health care.

Der theoretische Ansatz von James Scott zu Expansion von staatlicher Ordnung auf periphere Randgebiete wird auf den Aufbau von Wohlfahrts- und Gesundheitspolitik des modernen Staates angewendet und weiterentwickelt. Crystallization, biomimetics and semiconducting polymers in confined systems. Such an effect is of great interest for the fabrication of opto-electronic devices such as light emitting diodes with nanometer size emitting points and solar cells comprising of blends of electron donating and electron accepting polymers.

Eine solche Emulsion wird Miniemulsion genannt. In der Dissertation wurden nun z. Schutzteilchen, ein Fussel etc. Wenn sich dann einmal ein Kristall gebildet hat, kann das Wasser im gesamten Eimer schnell zu Eis werden. Planungsmodelle und Planungsmethoden. Anhaltspunkte zur Strukturierung und Gestaltung von Planungsprozessen. The topic of this article ist the question, in which phases oft he political planning process planners apply their methodological set of tools.

That for the results of a research-project are presented, which were gained by an examination of planning-cases in learned journals. Firstly it is argued, which model oft he planning-process is most suitable to reflect the regarded cases and how it is positioned to models oft he political process. Thereafter it is analyzed, which types of planning methods are applied in the several stages oft he planning process.

The central findings: Although complex, many planning processes can be thouroughly pictured by a linear modell with predominantly simple feedback loops. Even in times of he communicative turn, concerning their set of tools, planners should pay attention to apply not only communicative methods but as well the classical analytical-rational methods. They are helpful especially for the understanding of the political process before and after the actual planning phase.

Physik gestern und heute Spurensuche. Archaebakterien und Phylogenie der Organismen. Many biochemical and molecular biological features support this conclusion. Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Post-war Germany, Using the Example of the "Pflege- und Beobachtungsstation" in the State Psychiatric Hospital Weissenau The patient admissions at the children's ward of the State Psychiatric Hospital Weissenau in the years , , and were analyzed regarding documented coercive measures.

Shortage of staff, mainly inadequately skilled personnel, a mixing of age groups in the patient cohort, neurological and psychiatric disorders and of patients who were in need of nursing and of those who needed treatment constituted the general work environment. Coercive measures against patients, mostly disproportionate isolations, were a constant part of daily life on the ward. This affected in particular patients who had to stay longer at the hospital and whose stay was financed by public authority.

The uselessness of such measures was known, which can be seen e. The situation still escalated in some cases for example by transfer to an adult ward. For a long time, coercive measures against patients were part of everyday life at the children's ward of the Weissenau; the actual figures are suspected to be much higher.

Fiori, W. Astronomical ephemerides, navigation and war. Edition of the documents. Edition der Dokumente. During the whole period of the Second World War, England and the USA have exchanged astronomical ephemerides with Germany, even though these data were used for the navigation of warships and aircraft and were therefore of war importance.

This astonishing fact is attested by numerous documents which survived in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut ARI. In Germany, the exchange was even explicitly authorized by the ministry which supervised the ARI i. We present here examples of ephemerides for the Sun, the Moon, planets and stars, and explain the position determination by means of astronomical data.

Ephemerides were published in almanacs which were computed and issued by special ephemeris institutes. We describe the agreements on the international exchange of ephemerides which were reached in peace times, and the continuation of this exchange during the war using intermediaries in neutral countries, first in the USA U. Involved persons were especially H. Hellweg und W.

Lindblad Sweden , and A. Kopff ARI. All those relevant documents which are hold in the archives of the ARI, are described and annotated in detail. Scans of these documents are presented in a separate supplement. Planar millimeter wave radar frontend for automotive applications. Digitalisierung - Management Zwischen 0 und 1. Digitization as a process of expressing actions and values by codes 0 and 1 has already has become part of our lives. Digitization enables enterprises to improve production, sales and to increase volume of production. However, no standard digitization strategy has been yet developed.

Even in the digitized business process management system, the most important position remains to a human being. The improvement of software products, their availability and the education system in the area of introduction and use of information technology is thus a striking feature in development of managing but also other current processes. Astronomische Konzepte und Jenseitsvorstellungen in den Pyramidentexten.

The Egyptian pyramid texts were first written down around B. They are based on the religious belief in a stellar hereafter and contain the astronomical knowledge of their authors. For example, the ecliptical belt was understood as a canal, on which moon and planets cruise; of the latter Mercury, Venus and Mars were identified. On the basis of their visibility in the course of a year the fixed stars were divided into two groups; a southern group with a period of invisibility and a northern group with continual visibility.

The ecliptical "canal" was correctly identified as a division line between the two groups of fixed stars. The aim of this book is to bring these texts foreward to a better understanding of their astronomical background. Dental-Implantate und ihre Werkstoffe. Some new trends in materials for dental implants, which also effect in the operative techniques and implant design, are described.

Advantages and shortcomings of the different material types are exemplified and correlated with their bioinert resp. The practical interest in metallic implants focussed in titanium resp. This book comprises the habilitation thesis submitted by F. Due to financial support from various organizations, it was issued in a very attractive form as a special publication of the Society for the history of the city of Kiel. The nice layout, the graphical sketches of buildings, instruments, and astronomical connexions, often designed by the author, and the scientifically precise text, written with a sense of humor, make a pleasant reading, in spite of sometimes quite extensive descriptions of architectural details or 'operating instructions' for meridan circles etc.

I have rarely read such an appealing text on astronomical history. The single chapters deal with the beginnings of astronomy in Kiel , Schrader's giant telescope from the late 18th century, Altona Observatory , the first years of the Astronomische Nachrichten, the last years of Altona Observatory , Bothkamp Observatory , the genesis of Kiel Observatory , the era of Krueger , the Kiel Chronometer Observatory , the era of Harzer , the era of Rosenberg , the decline of Kiel Observatory , and the Astronomische Nachrichten under Kobold The book is concluded with a glossary of technical terms, biographical sketches of known and unknown dramatis personae, as well as a list of references.

The author outlines lively sketches of people that were astronomically active in Altona, Kiel and its surroundings over a time interval of years. He also has evaluated private documents and has interviewed surviving witnesses of the s and s. He has located remote sources: for example, the son of the founder of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Richard Schumacher, served for some years as an assistant at the Chilean National Observatory, and had married Marie Bulling, a girl of German descent.

From her "meagre diary entries" of that time published in Valparaiso in , the author suspects a "convenience marriage''. Nevertheless, unreliable sources can provide a false picture: the interviewed custodian notes that the wife of the last official observatory director, Hans Oswald Rosenberg, was "Verena Borchardt, a Jewess from St.

Petersburg'' p. This is more than incorrect. The family lived for some years in Moscow not St. In , his daughter Helene was born there - who later married the Kiel astronomer Wirtz. In , the Borchardt family moved to Berlin, where the father became a banker, and where Verena was born. On page too, Wirtz' capricious political views are quoted: "The day when the French troops entered Strasbourg was the happiest one in my life'', for which Theiss' paper of is quoted, and it is stated "source not given''. Now, Theiss uses a study of Duerbeck and Seitter , where the precise reference in the Kiel Acta is given.

Another series of peculiar statements refer to the Astronomische Nachrichten p. Totally fabricated is the author's statement that the journal is now published by "the Astronomical Computing Centre [sic] in Heidelberg''. In spite of these slightly critical notes on some irrelevant details, I can wholeheartedly recommend this book: it is an indispensable source of information for anyone who is interested in the history of astronomy in German-speaking lands in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century.

Internationale Schulreformtendenzen und das Problem der Lehrerausbildung. The main theme of this article is that the socio-economic and educational changes which have occurred in industrialized countries in the past 20 to 25 years necessitate a thorough reform of the present system of teacher education. The first group of such changes includes the information explosion, greater occupational mobility, the growing significance and increasing role of the sciences, the development of the mass media, higher educational aspirations, technical development, the acceleration of the psycho-physical development of children and youth, and the injurious effects of the uncontrolled development of the constantly changing civilisation deterioration of the human environment, diseases caused by the effects of civilisation, etc.

In the face of these changes, teachers must not remain indifferent and teacher education systems have to take them into account. Within the second group of changes influencing the content and methods of teacher education, the most important is the generalisation of education at the pre-school, primary and secondary school levels and also at the university level. As a result, education in many types of school and at ever higher levels has lost the elitist character it still had, not so long ago, and has become a mass activity.

This has considerably affected teachers' work and, necessarily, also the work of the teacher education systems. This must also be reflected in teacher education. In order to adapt the teacher education systems to the requirements of the changing society, a reform of the goals, contents and methods of the system will have to be prepared and implemented as a prerequisite and starting point for a global reform of the entire education system.

The second by a sailer, much accustomed to the rolling of a ship. And the third by a man, who, for recreation, or through excess of strong liquors, was wont to dance the drunken peasant. The meaningful position at right angles see I , p.

  • Älteste bildliche Darstellung der hl. Elisabeth.
  • K maďarskej kapitole čítanky o Pressburgu?
  • Wartburg, Signed.

Browne , Qs. By way of much derogation, M. What instruction has he given to you? He instructed me to take a step towards the Chair [Master] on the right angle of the Square, with my left knee bare, my body upright, standing with my right foot in the form of a square, my bare right hand on the Bible with the Square and Compasses on it, my left hand holding the points of the Compasses on my left breast; and thus I have sworn the solemn obligation or oath of the Entered Apprentice Freemason.

According to this provision in M. Now, Pr. However, according to the ancient rituals, the compasses must rest on the Bible, because the symbols of the three great lights must remain unseparated for contemplation , although nothing prevents the tip of the compasses resting on the Bible from touching the candidate left breast at the same time. In the NE. To begin with, I must cite some information from Bro.

Keher pertinent to this point: "In which degree a lodge is opened, that it is never said, but one can see it from the position of the Square and Compasses, by the pillars Jachin and Boaz, and by the signs, which the Worshipful Master and the officers make. The Bible, opened at the Gospel of John , where is mentioned John the Baptist , is not reclined, but level, there, and in the middle of it, lie the square and compasses according to the different degrees.

In first degree both legs of the compasses are under the Square, but in the Fellow-Craft degree the left leg is under and the right is on the square, in the Master degree, however, both legs of the compasses are on the square. Incidentally, the ceremonial custom of the Scottish lodges at the taking of the solemn Promise corresponds completely with JB. He lies his right [hand] on the Square and Compasses lying thereon, and the Worshipful Master covers it with his left. He is told as well that he is holding between his two hands the Bible, open at the Gospel of John, where it is spoken of John the Baptist, this, and at the same time is holding between his two hands the Square and Compasses, in order for him to lay simultaneously on it his oath before the eyes of God, with the intent of wanting to venerate the three great lights of Masonry, whose meaning he is told after the catechism.

Then he swears. After the oath, the three great lights are kept floating in a similar manner, and the first Steward then puts the Lodge Sword on the right shoulder of the Worshipful Master, and gently sets its tip on the candidate's heart; for the reason following, the sword must always be set on the heart; whereby the Master says: ""In the name of this Lodge I declare you an Apprentice Mason. He also may now abide by the Bible, and in the meantime learn the use of the Square, because his duty is to transform the rough stone into a square stone.

Furthermore, I remind you of the 78 - 80th questions from Browne related to this, which give a good meaning to the steps of the Apprentice. In regard to the 41st note above I , p. That I in this very 41st note rightly quote the passage from John 1, 5, has become even more likely to me from the fact that it stands written in large charcaters as a heading on the lodge Certificate of Bro. Houseal reprinted below. See IV , p. Die sinnvolle Stellung im rechten Winkel s. Welche Instruction hat er Dir gegeben?

Nach dieser Vorschrift in M. Nun hat schon Pr. I , ! I , ff. Keher erhellet. In order to make a proper perception about the vow, whereby the newly admitted is obligated by the fraternity, it is necessary, first of all, to hear the voice of history, which is first imparted to us in a reliable, specific message in the York Constitution of the year In the very same it is said:. Here it is spoken, within the meaning of the Middle Ages, of a solemn commitment obligation on the book of the Gospels. In order properly to understand this, one must know that, after the installation of the Roman Emperor converted to Christianity, all solemn obligations, contracts and protestations, even in the courts, were entered into under oath by the laying of hands on the Gospel book.

Justinian let the gospel lie down before the judgment court from the beginning of every legal Process up to the final judgments. See 1. The oath. VII, at the end! Under feudal Law , the Feoffee must swear allegiance to his feudal Lord laying the hands on the Gospel book. So were also sworn on the Gospel book bishops and clergy of the lower orders; and it was customary in all religious orders as well, to obligate the members by laying the hands on the Gospel; this also was no less the case among the religious orders of knighthood.

Even those admitted in their fraternities by the monks and regular Canons Canons Regular , laymen of all kinds, men, women, emperors, kings, artisans and serving brothers, were inaugurated and obligated with this vow on the Gospel book, whether they were to be spiritual brothers , for participation in the benefices of the fraternity to spiritual and physical benefactions, that is, prayer, burial, requiem mass, etc.

See about this in du Cange's instructive information in his Dictionary of mediae et infimae latinitatis the word: Fraternitas, 5 ; where other sources are demonstrated; and Veterum Scriptorum et Monumentorum etc. But we see that this usage has really been continually customary among the masons for the fact, that it has been communicated unchanged in the one from Preston , see his Illustrations, , pp. Anderson's Book of Constitutions of was intended to be read out on this occasion, as its title page precisely states; and Preston insisted so much about it, that it is done even to this day; — as it would be also certainly necessary.

Rabbi Dav. VIII, v. Vide 1. VII, in fine! Dessen Illustr. Das Anderson's che Constitutionenbuch vom J. So, according to this, pursuant to the York Constitution, precisely this constitution and laws were read to each candidate for admission; and he then vowed solemnly on the Gospel book: to fulfill the duties, which the fraternity places on him, and to faithfully uphold all its laws. Now, since in the York Constitution it is indeed called for secrecy in respect to profesional secrets according to the principles established in the Interrogation under Henry VI.

But it was not just , or principally , a vow of secrecy, but rather mainly a promise to practice the teachings of the fraternity , and to be faithful to its regulations. The formulation of this oath was certainly very simple, in the likeness to its closing. Among the Anglo-Saxons the oath formulas were likewise extremely simple, and also the penalties for perjury, as compared to other very harsh sentences, very moderate still, and quite unlike to that threatened in the so-called Masonic oath.

See suchlike formulas in Hickes Thesaurus Vol. Diss, op. Secrecy and the, anyhow known, penalties of perjury were probably hardly even specifically mentioned in this formula; the assumption of which is disproved by the fact, that in that old Masonic Constitution, which I will append from the Encyclopaedia Londinensis N. And this coincides also with Prichard's narrative see here p.

Book of Constitutions, among others, also here in IV , the 4th and 5th point the sixt ancient law [ old charge ] and the York Constitution! I say advisedly: this formula, handed down in GM. The formula of the toast, which is pretty much far younger than the guild-sounding little rhymes in Prichard are, see here p. However, the author of K. What's more, is that traces of the ancient genuine obligation are found even in the Fellowcraft and Master Oaths communicated in K. I have already shown in several places, that after the concoction and introduction of the Fellowcraft and Masters degree, to which the political purpose gave emergence, a lot was taken away from the ancient Apprentice Lecture, and the same was often adulterated.

See Sect. This appears to happen also with the Oath. Grand Mastership also has maintained this early Christian usage, as the reader can read about it here p. This form of "sealing" takes place also in the Fellowcraft and Master degrees — The taking of the oath on the Book of Gospels was and probably still is common in all Orders of chivalry. Johannis Baptistae Antiquitates etc. II in Praefat. PP tom. Among the inahabitants of Jerusalem it was often the custom to present the book of Gospels to the chief Magister [Prince, Master of the place] approching the sacred place [Altar? I believe the origin of the quite reprehensible Oath formula present in our document, occurred this way.

But since the misfortune of Charles I, who is listed by Anderson as Grand Master of the fraternity already in , decided to take a much large portion of the Masons in his party; and they had probably watched over some part in the year of the last attempt of the Scots and Welsh, to save both the King and the Parliament. Mary's Chapel, "the well-born Robert Moray , quartermaster general in the army in Scotland, was chosen as a Master of Masons. Jones's essays Freemasonry in the Enclyclopaedia, thranslated into German in Bro. In this break-neck, but in the eyes of the faithfuls to the king [ Jacobites ] , completely righteous intent, in the struggle against the crafty Protector, Oliver Cromwell was especially necessary the greatest circumspection.

Also, the insiders could not trust every Mason. So they chose the means of a narrower circle of adepts, in the guise of a secret degree, which was dressed up in several Masonic rituals and many new emblems, in which, under the myth of the slain and raised master builder Hiram , they hid their plot. Since Charles I. Later on came the Fellow-Craft degree, still added as a transition and preparation for the Master Secrets.

I touched on this just to make understand that and why at that time, for the collateral political purpose of many lodge connections, it became necessary to attach to the Apprentice degree two still higher ones, and also, as a result, to obligate every apprentice entirely to secrecy for secrets to be communicated in the future, and indeed with the threat of a terrible corporal punishment, and to gradually further hone this obligation in the Fellowcraft and Master degrees.

This penalty, in the likeness of English state laws, must have appeared even legitimate to the Royalists; it could be threatened in all seriousness, and a death penalty could really be exercised by the restored king to those who would have betrayed this secrecy, as guilty of high treason. At this point the signs probably already existing in the fraternity, the so-called throat , heart and waist signs, which formerly probably had a very different meaning, were distributed in these three degrees, and merely interpreted as referring to the penalty of treason.

But I found historically and explicitly confirmed long after I had formed this conviction, in the little work: " What should the parable of the friends of beasts really mean? Catesby on this point warns: ""do not undertake anything, before you have sworn. No one but us was in conclave, where with our hand we touch the book in which are recorded the prayers to the deity, and on uttering the oath we promise to keep absolute silence.

Under these circumstances, should we now not drop entirely that unworthy, reprehensible in every respect Oath formula, from our Ritual? At least we should revert to the oldest mode of making a vow, as described in of the York Constitution and in GM. This promise should no longer be set on indefinite concealment of a secret, which has completely changed in nature, and of which, because it is no longer political long since, every brother is obliged to examine whether it should, must, and can still be secret in our times.

I have already mentioned I , Sect. Also, such an oath is not allowed in all states; and the so-called Masonic oath in particular has often, and in various countries of Europe, become an occasion for harsh persecutions of the fraternity. At least the Masons, — that is, if they, according to their purpose, are purely human-minded people, — must, according to the principles of their art, set aside this oath of admission, even if the state allows such private oath, but even if the state forbids it for a different reason.

Eternal truths however, which are sacred to humanity, which are essential to its training, the spreading of which at this time is just needful, and the knowledge of which can and should be brought about by means of their own strength, even without the disclosure by those who call for the concealment of them, who want to conceal eternal truths belonging to all mankind, and pledge such a secrecy, as well as demand such secrecy from the unwary, which is a sin against the Holy Spirit, — against the Divine and Holy in people.

I am firmly convinced, for reasons and by profound examination of the eternal original concept idea of humanity and of its life, which Freemasonry and the fraternity, even if unconsciously, from the beginning of their existence has laid at the foundation, that not a single inner basis for the farthest remote concealment of the purpose of our convivial works, of our customs and symbols, opportune in the peculiar essence nature of the thing , is present, and that to a greater degree lay upon us the responsibility of the present state of life of mankind, the duty to reshape our association into an open society dedicated to all of mankind, — to the Human Alliance, — and consequently also to constitute it in Liturgy and Constitution, and in the whole practices new, beautiful as it was, and fruitful.

Even Bro. Our rituals have become known through the printing presses of the world: their secrecy can therefore no longer be promised by an oath. The only secret, what still lies in the fraternity, is the nature and disposition of Freemasonry, and the history of its origin and progress. He who led by our symbols has found the nature and tendency of Freemasonry in the innermost of his heart, can not desecrate it by expressing it in words, because he is not understood by those who are still looking for it.

He who has come by his own research into the knowledge of the origin and progress of Freemasonry, can be obligated by no oath, to the concealment of his discoveries. This is a property of my mind and heart, in respect of which, however, I do not ascribe to myself the slightest merit. Nothing in the world is to prevent me from so openly inform the contemporaries and posterity of what was found, as recognized essential to the higher education of mankind, and as my own conscience demands it.

I have never anywhere pledged to conceal universal human truths ; and the prospect of abuse and calumnies of ignorance and of secret addiction obliged me yet particularly to obey God and conscience alone. I conclude with a beautiful passage of Lessing a — ""Little children, love each other!

Siehe dergleichen Formeln in Hickesii Thes. Ich sage mit Bedacht: diese in GM. I , , Z. Siehe S. I , und ! Dieses "Versiegeln" findet auch im Gesellen- und Meistergrade statt. Usu id jamdiu receptum perspicuo tradit Jonas Episcopus Aureliaensis, Saeculi IX scriptor de cultu Imaginum adversus Claudium Taurinensem: ""sacrae Religionis usus adhuc in Ecclesia servatur, ut perlecta sacri Evangelii lectione, ab Episcopo, vel Presbyteris, ceterisque sacri ordinis Religiosis, Codex, in quo Evangelii lectio recitara est, multiplicibus osculis veneretur.

Apud Hierosolymitanos illud frequentatum, ut M. Magistro, quum Sacro adest, liber Evang. Patriarcham CP. Magister loci Princeps sit Principibus ad deosculandum deferri licere declaravit S. Die Entstehung der in unserer Urkunde vorliegenden, ganz verwerflichen, Eidformel denke ich mir so. Auch nicht jedem Maurer konnten sich die Eingeweihecten vertrauen. Da Karl I. Buche S. Hansenii de Jurej. XXI, de jurejurando silentii! Catesbius ibi monet: ""nihil ante moliendum, quam omnes in silentium jurassemus. Nemo praeter nos in conclavi erat, ubi manu libellum tangimus, in quo preces ad numen descriptae sunt, oonceptisque jurisjurandi verbis invicem silentii fidem damus.

Ich habe schon I , Sp. Wer das Wesen und die Tendenz der Freimaurerei unter Leitung unserer Symbole in seinem Innersten gefunden hat, der kann es durch Aussprechung nicht entheiligen; denn er wird von Denen, die es noch suchen, nicht verstanden. Keher mentions, " [the Oath] is likewise sworn on the patron saint of Masons, John the Baptist.

This is probably a newer addition of a Roman-Catholic branch of the fraternity, which may have been added in the spirit of this church in the formula: "so help me God" in addition to "and the Blessed Virgin, and all the saints, and our Patron Saint John. Indeed, in my opinion, the Gospel of John is not even opened merely or principally because of the reference to John the Baptist , as Bro. Keher and several other brothers think, but rather because of the doctrine of the word , of the light and of the relationships of Jesus to God and to humanity expressed in this Gospel; which were principal doctrines in the teaching concept of the Culdees.

Keher further reports, "the oath is also changed three times, according to the different sign of the three degrees, on admission to Apprentice is mentioned only the tearing out of the tongue and [the cutting of the] throat, etc. Many brethren hold that, in the present Oath, to write, [indite, mark, print,] etc.

But this writing itself is actually only prohibited to a limited extent to this Oath formula; only if, thereby, the secret Art would be attained unlawfully; but under secret Art is meant "the whole liturgy and its practice in the lodge. The same proviso is found in the Oath formula in Prichard here, p.

In Browne the Candidate is to be betray none of the " royal secrets " confided to him Q. I have already observed p. In the instructive, as to the older history of the fraternity, work: Firma Burghi , or historical Essay concerning the Cities, Towns and Boroughs of England by Madox , London, ; Fol. Regarding the punishment threatene here, it corresponds with the penalty of high treason only in the fact that it is the death penalty. The peculiarity of the punishment of high treason is, to be hanged and, when still alive, the body severed, the entrails burned, and beheaded etc.

By contrast, I find the threatened punishment here, of cutting out the tongue, already mentioned in early times for perjurers who had sworn falsely on the Book of Gospels. See Harmenopolum ad Tit. What is the point of your Entrance? I do not want to decide, however, how early or late, if at all, is their threat older than the mid-seventeenth century; one may have perhaps introduced it in degenerate lodges as a Guild horror, to the type of teasing, or as a proverbial hype. It has nothing in common with the Anglo-Saxon penalties of perjury, which are very mild compared with their punishment threatened here.

The most beautiful passages about the notions of the geniuses of the ancients are perhaps: Epictetus. XIV l. I invite the reader to familiarize himself, with the help of the Subject Index, with what I've gathered in IV about the doctrine and worship of genii. Erskine in Scotland to my old university friend van Dyk in Holland, by whose kindness I have received from Scotland and York everything that is reliable, procured by me through him, it is responded this: ""Now in York it is known of no Ritual contemporary to the ancient Constitution to be found any more, but it is made use of the same ritual as the one in Edinburg, or rather the Edinburgh ritual is the York one.

But there is in York, as I have been assured, written information, indeed several, which commemorate an ancient ritual. I have read in this very information, which is recorded in the ancient Codex after the Constitution, that in A. But since we still have it [we still practice this custom] ; so I have concluded that it has been left over from the ancient [usage] , and perhaps for a similar reason, as to why this pouring etc.

All that is known of his life is that he was a theologian of Italian origin. Toat to health after the Oath. The espression of the toast: "to the heart, that conceals, etc. See also the remark about the ceremonial lodge goblets. See hereafter the real meaning of the throat, hand, breast and foot signs in the 42 - 46th questions!

According to Kh's. In the ritual of the English Moderns according to Browne , probably accurs load , charge [of the glasses] , but not in the meaning of cannon, powder, firing , or some other suchlike expressions unworthy of mutually-convivial joyous men.

Table of contents

I think the solemn meaningful attitude of the candidate, p ff.. In order to act reasonably to some extent, where the blindfold is to be maintained, although it is without reason, one could at least let the Candidate for admission put it on and take it off by himself. Yet it would be best to do away with this usage entirely, as it is incompatible with the spirit of pure humanity. I have developed and explained the purpose of this educational sign symbol , which I view as the principal educational character principal symbol of the Masonry of the English Ancients, in the Liturgical Catechism opening this work, and in I , p.

It suggests an all-sided structural organic and harmonic accomplishment of the individual and of all people into One humanity. The spirit in which the Interrogation under Henry VI. Note well, that I have quoted the meaning of the principal symbol for the deeper exploratory rationality, which in itself lies indicated therein , and that I therefore assert, that their founder , — the Culdees , who, though they were equally a part of the Christian clergy of the Middle Ages, had nevertheless raised themselves above the church statutes, especially above those of the Pope and of the Roman-Catholic Church, — sensed this higher meaning.

Because this ritual was made by them for all builders, for all Fellows a of the construction Guild, and for all Lodge Masters not belonging to the clergy, and architects and patrons and friends of the guild, which they admitted and made as Masons Accepted Masons , which they all raised to their higher knowledge and love of humanitarianism and humanity and wanted to educate them to this end. Without, however, having takes possession of the spirit of the past, and of all it is pronounced in our Craft documents, but especially in the York Constitution , and without being prepared with a more detailed knowledge of the history of the Middle Ages and of the Founders of our fraternity, it is impossible for anyone to understand this important part of ancient Masonic symbolism in the sense meant by the founders, and to appreciate, or to explain to himself, the origin of this symbol.

Before I now expand further here on the Three Great Lights , I remind the reader once more about what I have taught in the foreword, in the catechism spiritualizing the fundamental symbols, and in other passages of this book a about teaching signs symbols and symbolic activities symbolic Rites , particularly about their subordinate value, and about what is needful to the Masonic fraternity in this regard. Symbols and rituals are merely minor parts of the language, and generally imply language, and therefore, like any language, presuppose intuition, insight, no-figurative knowledge of the subjects constituted in them.

With regard to the explanation of the historically handed down symbols, one must keep in mind at the same time the explanation handed down together and attached in our catechism in the vernacular. I have likewise explained myself earlier in general I , in note 50 , p. The double symbolization of this symbol is very peculiar; namely in that the symbol of light is symbolized by the new three things physically represented, which are yet already also figuratively intertwined in another way in the whole of this imagery; as compasses and square, as principal instruments of labour , symbolize both the work and the guild.

Dieselbe Bedingung steht in der Eidformel bei Prichard hier S. Prichard hat: Fr. Siehe Blackstone's Comment. Dublin, Book IV, p. Harmenopolum ad tit. Welches ist der Punkt eures Antritts? Mit den angelsaxischen Strafen des Meineides, welche im Vergleich mit ihr sehr milde sind, hat die hier gedrohte Strafe Nichts gemein.

Wilkin's Leges Anglos. Alvredi, c. Schriftliche Nachrichten in York aber giebt es, wie mir versichert worden ist, allerdings mehrere, welche eines Urrituals gedenken. Homo, et ejus partes , figuratus et symbolicus etc. Zum Gesundheittrinken nach dem Eide. Der ausgebrachte Toast: "dem Herzen, das verhehlt usw. Nach Kh's. Denke ich mir die feierlich sinnvolle Stellung des Aufzunehmenden, S.

Doch am besten bleibt dieser Gebrauch, als mit dem Geiste der reinen Menschlichkeit unvereinbar, ganz weg. Es deutet auf allseitige gliedbauliche organische und harmonische Vollendung des einzelnen Menschen und aller Menschen in Einer Menschheit hin. Light has been at all times and with all peoples, from their first seed and up to the highest blossom of their self-consciousness, a symbol of knowledge and vibrant intuition; of this are witnesses all languages, but especially all godlike concepts religious concepts. It is indeed of the essence to think of the eternal truth under the pleasing symbol of light.

Truth is to the discerning mind what light is to the senses of the body. Light is in the physical nature of Nature an omnipresent, primal living, primal velocity, like the philosophical thought in the sanctuary of the Spirit. Light and warmth act in like manner on all creative forces of the physical nature of Nature , like knowledge and feeling on the life force of the spirit. This proves itself to be equally effective over the light only in the primal activity of the physical nature operant in the so-called life magnetism, like the whole self-awareness of the mind, in which the self-consciousness is only a part, primally acting prevails over the prying thoughts of the spiritual nature — of Reason.

The name of light is now splendidly in use in this sense among all peoples of the Orient; in the most profound and purest sense in the metaphysical teachings of the Indian Vedas , in an even more primally-powerful reflected splendor in the religion of light of the Zoroaster in the Zend Avesta , more blurred already in the worship of stars of the Sabaeans , as well as among the ancient Egyptians, which, insofar as our historical information dating back to prehistoric times tells, were the most beautiful blossom of humanity in Africa descending from India.

By the foregoing statement I do not say: that the whole human race of this earth, or even all the peoples in Africa, originated from India. See previous p. Most noteworthy in this regard is the conformity of the Essenian society in respect of the principal teachings, which the Culdees linked to the Three Great Lights of the builders' lodges. Hence the predetermined harmony of teaching concepts and social institutions of different times and countries, which stand either unrelated, or in distant historical correlation.

But if literal conformity in principal matters turns up, and if it is already proven that the younger association knew the history of the older, then the historian researcher has to investigated to what extent a peculiar relationship of both associations had probably actually occurred. So the teachings and professional rules of the society of the Essenes flourishing in Judea and Syria, and of the in teaching and way of life attuned Therapeutae living in Egypt in association with the Essenes several centuries before and after Jesus' life, are accurately related and coincide in particular practices and sayings with those of the genuine Freemasonry; whether or, especially as a result, are found similarities in their way of life and significant differences from those of the Masons, since the Essenes lived together, and formed a society set apart from the rest of the world.

Philo has preserved to us these basic teachings of the Essenes in his essay: Quod Omnis Probus Liber [That the good man is free] ; see his works, Colon. Thereupon one takes the Bible and read aloud from it; another among the most experienced read aloud passages difficult to understand, and goes through them. Then they philosophize mostly in a very ancient metaphorical language. They educate themselves in religion, justice, domestic economy, in the science of what is good and evil, and indifferent in the truth, and in the knowledge to choose the best and to flee the opposite. In doing so they make use of a threefold fundamental determination and principle.

Love of God, love of Virtue, and love of men. The younger ones are asked by the presbyters to sit orderly, according to their age, and with attentiveness. One takes the Scriptures, another one of the mostly gifted reads out what is not known. Because he strongly desires to philosophically discuss most of what is shown by ancient symbols. They study holiness, righteousness, thriftiness, public behavior, science knowledge of the truth for the bad and good, and the irrelevant; heresies where it must, and avoid the opposite, using terms and standards of a person, who is pious, filaret virtue lover and lover of people.

Then Philo also shows how they applied these three great principles in life, and makes of their charity and relief work in particular such a description, in regard to their general human disposition, which under the proud Jews among his own people is all the more gratifying and admirable, that can be set as a model for our fraternity. It is undeniable however, that the monks of the Middle Ages, particularly the most ancient in Britain, Ireland and Scotland, who were completely subjected to the Roman Seat until the fifteenth century, knew the Essenes and their institutions accurately, and like the oldest confraternities of monks and all founders of them, had adopted the Essenes and Therapeutae as model of their way of life; as everyone who has made himself familiar with the evolution of monastic life knows.

See about this particularly the many times mentioned work of Bivarius! All this taken together, it is therefore not improbable that the Culdees , the founders of our Masonic ritual, especially with the introduction of the spiritualization of the three great lights, have looked up at the mentioned three basic principles of the Essenes. Manes , however, borrowed a great part of his teaching and the nature of symbols from Zoroaster's teachings and essence of pictorial symbols; such as long since lies before our eyes through the efforts of the noble Anquetil du Perron and the of the noble Kleuker in the very Zend-Avesta.

See about this the Illustrations in the work of Cordiner of Banff and his explanations appended thereto! The Culdees led, in complete similarity to the Essenes and Therapeutae , a contemplative, but at the same time industrious for the human well-being, life, and undertook, through their higher education and art of living, to hold together, to educate, and to develop the social class of the builders, honorable, essential, and intimately connected to them. It had to be, because to them this social class reminded of the pure rational knowledge of the original and eternal nature , b without which nothing can be done in the whole areas of human existence, even in the beautiful arts.

Light was to them the long since familiar image of this knowledge. Such an opportunity truly showed up: because, if we only consider the real status of the Builders Lodge, more precisely such as it arised from the professional activities of the builders themselves, then this place, where those higher teachings could be communicated to the builders most vividly, is not to be overlooked. The Builders Workshop Lodge had three main windows — perhaps several others besides them, — in the east, south and west, GM.

The workers themselves then occupied the places which had comparatively good light, according to the importance of their work; but the apprentices, who, except for the lodge ceremonial meetings, in the lodge which actually served as a covered place for the secret processing of the stones were trained to work in the north, Pr. Therefore the main light shone on the lodges officials, who also were in need of it the most, in the most spiritual, most delicate work of the floor plans, of the computation, etc. The Master, who had to be on the spot before sunrise, had the most beautiful light of the morning.

It was the task of the Junior Warden to oversee the dismissal of the brethren at noon, the lodge in their absence, and the brethren on their return to work; JB.

Civic Culture And Everyday Life in Early Modern Germany

However, in the 17th and in the first decade of the 18th century the Worshipful Master was often called the Grand Master see I , p ! An open Compasses over the right-angled Square is even now commonly used in Europe as the guild sign of the stonecutters, masons and of some related trades. In this the Christian religious people befriending our fraternity now found a welcome opportunity to introduce, silently and imperceptibly, with the wisdom of educators, their higher teachings into the Builders Lodges, and to express it to the Fellows in the Craft in the most comprehensible way.

Look at the brightly-illuminated [objects] on the desk of the Master! The Working Tools of the Master venerable to you, and the Book of Gospels to you holy: they portend the three eternal light sources of life. When these three eternal great lights, the knowledge of God, of yourself and of convivial humanity shine onto you: only then you will be godly people and respectable artists. This ever-certain conviction is one of eternal nature and ever-existing , see here p.

Because he who is so convinced "believes, even if he does not see," that is, he is in the essential intuition — in the primordial knowledge of God, — eternally and essentially certain of the peculiar eternal presence of God, even inasmuch as of his own, interfered by the senses, does not detect it. On this could now be added endlessly, according to mental capacity, and according to all social considerations, a determined further instruction in true fervency toward God religion , without delusion and superstition, in pure goodness virtue , without fear and hope, and in a convivial way of life without crime and punishment, both without symbols, as wrapped in symbols as well.

Not as if they had held the Bible in low esteem, or denied God's participation in their creation: — Only they did not want blind faith. Denn sie philosophiren meistens in einer sehr alten Bildersprache. Hiebei bedienen sie sich einer dreifachen Grundbestimmung und Grundregel: der Gottliebe, der Tugenliebe und der Menschenliebe. Das Hauptlicht fiel also den Logenbeamten zu, die es auch bei der geistigsten, zartesten Arbeit der Grundrisse, des Rechnens, usw.

III, Fig. Blikket auf den Tisch des Meisters, den hellerleuchteten! In this way now these first founders of the ritual perhaps gave already even more emphasis to these teachings, in that they had the Bible opened at the Epistles of Peter , but particularly at the Gospel of John , where is made mention of the divine Word and of the divine Light , and where the reference to John the Baptist , as a patron saint of the fraternity, at the same time showed a way to the hearts of the brethren.

If one were to to assume this interpretation of the three Great Lights , handed down to us in the present Apprentice Lecture, was the work of the last few centuries, then this assumption proves itself as inadmissible in every respect. Because the teaching contained in it is found already, in fact far more clearly pronounced than it is here, in the Interrogation under Henry VI, and at least with our second Craft document, itself equal to the ancient York Constitution ; as any reader can now persuade himself, since it lies before our eyes in this work according to an attested true a translation.

Now, since in the very same York Constitution is hinted already to an existing ritual, and as the aforementioned catechism likewise suggests; as in it is spoken of initiation and of a secret common language; and those clergymen contemptuously rejecting the papal teachings and assumptions, descended from the first Christians before the Diocletian Persecution in the most prosperous era of the Romans, who even their opponents would call pious worshipers of God a had their most prosperous time in England and Scotland before the tenth centuries: so I must consider it very likely that this interpretation of the three Great Lights is older than the tenth century.

Out of it the Latins made it Coli-deos , God worshippers. See the evidence in the collection of passages about the Culdees , attacched in the second section of the second volume! This symbol must have been brought into existence, expressed according to its purely human meaning, before the desecration of the fraternity by papal autocracy through political and alchemical plot; all the more so, since we know the figments of the imagination, with which these un-Masonic aspirations tendencies have abundantly endowed our Masonic fraternity as of a very different nature: and these three Great Lights have disappeared everywhere, where those things [plots] have exerted their influence.

Because at this point appears at the same time the origin of the Three Lesser Lights in Freemasonry. At the three main windows sat indeed the three officials holding and ruling the Loge. So it is now easy to add a second lesson to what has been said:.