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Table of contents

Communications, 16 , — Becker, C. The Japanese way of debate. National Forensic Journal, 1 , — Bengtsson, M. Defining functions of Danish political commentary. Zenker Ed. Cognition and community. Windsor, ON. CD rom. Bentancur, L. El desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa [The development of argumentative competence]. Montevideo: Quehacer Educativo. Cogency, 1 2 , 13— Berk, U.

Konstruktive Argumentationstheorie [A constructive theory of argumentation]. Bermejo-Luque, L. The justification of the normative nature of argumentation theory. Giving reasons. Dordrecht: Springer. Besedina, Y. Argumentativnyj diskurs kognitivno-slozhnyh i kognitivno-prostyh lichnostej [Argumentative discourse of cognitively-complex and cognitively-simple individuals].

Doctoral dissertation, Kaluga State University, Kaluga. Bigi, S. The persuasive role of ethos in doctor-patient interactions. Communication and Medicine, 8 1 , 67— Evaluating argumentative moves in medical consultations. Journal of Argumentation in Context, 1 1 , 51— Biro, J. Argumentation, arguing, and arguments.

Comments on Giving reasons. Theoria, 72 , — Dispositions for critical thinking]. Bonhomme, M. Bern: Peter Lang. Paris: Le Seuil. Pragmatique des figures du discours [The pragmatics of discourse figures]. Paris: Champion. Borges, H. Argumentative rationality in judicial motivation ]. Coimbra: Minerva Coimbra. Ribeiro Ed. Coimbra: Coimbra University Press. Bose, I. Enthymeme and prosody. A contribution to empirical research in the analysis of intonation as well as argumentation.

Snoeck Henkemans Eds. Bowker, J. Personal and ideational dimensions of good and poor arguments in human interaction. Grootendorst Eds. Braet, A. Een leergang schriftelijke taalbeheersing [Speech acts. A curriculum on writing and reading]. Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff. The classical doctrine of status and rhetorical theory of argumentation.

Philosophy and Rhetoric, 20 , 79— Schrijfvaardigheid Nederlands [Writing skills in Dutch]. Bussum: Coutinho.

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On the origin of normative argumentation theory. The paradoxical case of the Rhetoric to Alexander. Argumentation, 10 , — Argumentatieve vaardigheden [Argumentative skills]. Hermagoras and the epicheireme. Rhetorica, 22 , — De redelijkheid van de klassieke retorica. De bijdrage van klassieke retorici aan de argumentatietheorie [The reasonableness of classical rhetoric. The contribution of classical rhetoricians to the theory of argumentation]. Leiden: Leiden University Press. Effectief debatteren. Argumenteren en presenteren over beleid [Debating effectively.

Policy argumentation and presentation]. Bregant, J. Zmote in napake v argumentaciji. A guide through bad argumentation in everyday life]. Maribor: Subkulturni azil. Breivega, K. Vitskaplege argumentasjonsstrategiar [Scientific argumentation strategies]. Oslo: Norsk sakprosa. Breton, P. Briushinkin, V. Sistemnaya model arguementacii [Systematic model of argumentation]. In Trancendental anthropology and logic. Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad University Press.

Numéros en texte intégral

Ishodnaya abstrakciya b metodologiya [Argumentoric. Initial concept and approach]. Briushinkin Ed. Argumentation and rationality pp. O dvoyakoi roli ritoriki v sistemnoi modeli argumentcii [On twofold role of rhetorics in the systematic model of argumentation]. Browne, M.

Asking the right questions. A guide to critical thinking 7th ed. Prentice Hall: Pearson. Chinese transl. Argumentation at the Swedish dinner table. Brutian, G. The architectonics of argumentation. The theory of argumentation, its main problems and investigative perspectives. Pietarinen Ed. Turku: University of Turku. Logic, language, and argumentation in projection of philosophical knowledge.

Lisbon: Grafica de Coimbra. The language of argumentation. Problemy filosofskoi argumentatsii [Problems of philosophical argumentation]. Brutian, L. On the types of argumentative discourse. On the pragmatics of argumentative discourse. Arguments in child language. Stylistic devices and argumentative strategies in public discourse. Garssen, D. Mitchell Eds. Amsterdam: Rozenberg-Sic Sat. Budzynska, K. Structure of persuasive communication and elaboration likelihood model. Circularity in ethotic structures. Synthese, , — Dialogues with conflict resolution. Goals and effects. Purver Eds.

Chmielewski, M. Grobler Eds. A logic for reasoning about persuasion. Fundamenta Informaticae, 85 , 51— Software for analyzing persuasion process. Fundamenta Informaticae, 93 1—3 , 65— The structure of ad hominem dialogues. Verheij, S. Woltran Eds. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Burger, M. Argumentative and hierarchical dimensions of a broadcast debate sequence. A micro analysis. Dascal, F. Rigotti, A. Stati Eds. Bruxelles: de Boeck. Argumentation et communication dans les medias [Argumentation and communication in the media]. Bustamante, T. Teoria do precedente judicial. The justification and application of legal rules]. Calheiros, M. Camargo, M. Revista Forense, , 02— Revista Forense, , — Canale, D. On the contrary. Inferential analysis and ontological assumptions of the a contrario argument.

Informal Logic, 28 1 , 31— The a simili argument. An inferentialist setting.

PHILOSOPHY - René Descartes

Ratio Juri, 22 4 , — What is the reason for this rule? An inferential account of the ratio legis. Argumentation, 24 3 , — The argument from legislative silence. Una introduzione alle logiche del dialogo [Theories of argumentation. An introduction into the dialogue logics].

Milan: Bruno Mondadori. Algorithms and arguments. The foundational role of the ATAI-question. Carbonell, F. Reasoning by consequences. Applying different argumentation structures to the analysis of consequentialist reasoning in judicial decisions. Cogency, 3 2 , 81— Cardona, N. Argumentative discourse in children of two to four years old].

Carrascal, B. Argumentation schemes in the process of arguing. Carrilho, M. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Porto: Asa. Paris: Le Livre de Poche. Carvalho, J. Lisbon: Colibri. Castelfranchi, C. Why argue? Towards a cost-benefit analysis of argumentation.

Argument and Computation, 1 1 , 71— Cattani, A[delino]. Il ragionamento tra logica e retorica [Forms of arguing. Logical and rhetorical aspects of reasoning]. Padova: Edizioni GB. Discorsi ingannevoli. Argomenti per difendersi, attaccare, divertirsi [Deceitful reasoning. Arguments for defending, attacking and amusing].

Botta e risposta. The art of retort]. Bologna: Il Mulino. La svolta argomentativa. Fifty years after Perelman and Toulmin]. Naples: Loffredo University Press. Cattani, A[nnalisa]. Argumentative mechanisms in advertising. The power of irony in contemporary advertising. Milano: Lupetti. Cavazza, N. La persuasione [Persuasion] 2nd ed. Charaudeau, P. Paris: Hachette. Argumentation et Analyse du Discours, 1. Chateauraynaud, F.

Argumenter dans un champ de forces. Essai de balistique sociologique [Arguing in a field of force. Essay on sociological ballistics]. Cherkasskaya, N. Strategii i taktiki v apelliativvnom rechevom zhanre [Strategies and tactics in the appellative speech genre]. Doctoral dissertation, Udmurt State University, Izhevsk. Chesnevar, C. Towards an argument interchange format.

The Knowledge Engineering Review, 21 4 , — Coelho, A. Lisbon: Livros Horizonte. Collin, F. Bogen om argumentation [Therefore. A book on argumentation]. Copenhagen: Hans Reitzel. Constantinescu, M. Crawshay-Williams, R. Methods and criteria of reasoning. An inquiry into the structure of controversy. Crespo, C. Crespo, N. Revista Signos, 37 , 69— Relime, 8 3 , — Cuenca, M. Cunha, P. Lisbon: Quid Juris. Cunha, T.

Meyer, Michel (1950-)

Buoni e cattivi argomenti nel dibattito publico [Poisoned truth. Good and bad arguments in the public debate]. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri. Ad ignorantiam arguments, epistemicism and realism. Damele, G. Revista Brasileira de Filosofia, , 11— On legal argumentation techniques. Towards a systematic approach. Sebastiano Eds. On line access to legal information. Methodologies, trends and perspectives pp. Araszkiewicz, M. Skop Eds. International conference on alternative methods of argumentation in law pp. Brno: Masaryk University.

Danblon, E. Essay on the emergence of criticism and persuasion]. Brussels: Labor. La function persuasive. Anthropology of rhetorical discourse. Origins and actuality]. Paris: Armand Colin. Culture, raison, action [The rhetorical man.

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Culture, reason, action]. Dascal, M. Interpreting and understanding. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Portuguese transl. Epistemology, controversies, and pragmatics. Types of polemics and types of polemical moves. Cmejrkova, J. Hoffmannova, O. Svetla Eds. International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 9 3 , — Debating with myself and debating with others. Dascal Eds. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Portuguese transl. Revista Internacional de Filosofia , 29 2 , —, Traditions of controversy and conflict resolution.

Chang Eds. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Dichotomies and types of debate. Relating controversy analysis with argumentation theory pp. Dichotomies and types of debates. Controversies in the scientific revolution. Bucharest: Oscar Print. Model pragma-dialektyczny a rozumowanie abdukcyjne [The pragma-dialectical model and abductive reasoning]. Forum Artis Rhetoricae, 20—21 1—2 , 96— Deimer, G. Argumentative Dialoge. Ein Versuch zu ihrer sprachwissenschaftlichen Beschreibung [Argumentative dialogue. An attempt at linguistic description]. Pragmatic perspectives on the prevention of suicide].

Deppermann, A. Dias, A. Dichy, J. Multidisciplinary CDA. A plea for diversity. Meyer Eds. London: Sage. Gabbay, P. Canivez, S. Thiercelin Eds. Truth and nothing but the truth? The argumentative use of fictions in legal reasoning. Discini, N. Djidjian, R. Transformational analysis and inner argumentation.

Turku: Turun Yliopisto. Dolinina, I. Change of scientific paradigms as an object of the theory of argumentation. Douay-Soublin, F. Vervaecke Eds. Leuven: Leuven University Press. Topicality, redevelopment, re-use]. Doury, M. Doury M. Martel Ed. Rationalising everyday experiences] pp. Drop, W. Handboek voor taalhantering [Speech communication. Handbook of speech management]. Ducrot, O. Cali: Facultad de Humanidades, Universidad de Cali. Les mots du discours [The words of discourse].

Paris: Minuit. Dufour, M. Argumenter [Arguing]. Explication scientifique et explication non scientifique [Scientific and non-scientific explanation]. Roux Eds. Paris: Vrin. Dumarsais, C. Douay-Soublin Ed. Paris: Flammarion. A paraconsistent approach to speech acts.

Teamwork in multi-agent systems. A formal approach. Chichester: Wiley. Eabrasu, M. Libertarian Papers, 1 20 , 1— Eco, U.

La patience d'être. Métaphysique, coll. « Ouvertures », n° 17

Il messaggio persuasivo [The persuasive message]. Mattioli Ed. Modena: Mucchi. Strategic maneuvering in argumentative discourse. Extending the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation. Extending the pragma-dialectical theory. Mosse e strategie tra retorica e argomentazione.

Naples: Loffredo. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins]. Controversy and confrontation. Relating controversy analysis with argumentation theory. Speech acts in argumentative discussions. A theoretical model for the analysis of discussions directed towards solving conflicts of opinion. Beijing: Peking University Press. Grootendorst a. Argumentation, communication, and fallacies.

A pragma-dialectical perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum]. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Petersburg: St. Petersburg University Press. Grootendorst a , Argumentation, communication, and fallacies. Rechevye akty v argumentativnykh diskusiyakh. Teoreticheskaya model analiza diskussiy, napravlennyh na razresheniye konflikta mneniy. Chakhoyan, L. Grootendorst La nouvelle dialectique.

A systematic theory of argumentation. The pragma-dialectical approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Una teoria sistematica dell'argomentazione. L'approccio pragma-dialettico. Milan: Mimesis. A systematic theory of argumentatin. O perspectiva pragma-dialectica.

Galati: Galati University Press. Buenos Aires: Biblos. Los actos de habla en las discusiones argumentativas. Het identificeren van enkelvoudige argumentatie [Identifying single argumentation]. Tijdschrift voor Taalbeheersing , 6 4 , — Analysis, evaluation, presentation. Analiz, proverka, predstavleniye. Petersburg: Faculty of Philology, St. Petersburg State University. Student Library. Grootendorst and A. Snoeck Henkemans a. Yerevan: Academy of Philosophy of Armenia.

Analiza, evaluimi, prezentimi. Beijing: New World Press. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum]. Il galateo della discussione Orale e scritta. Gilardoni, A. Engdahl, E. The rhetoric of store-window mannequins. Engelhardt, H. Scientific controversies. Case studies in the resolution and closure of disputes in science and technology. Eriksson, L. Traditions of rhetorical proof. Pauline argumentation in 1 Corinthians.

Doctoral dissertation, University of Lund, Lund. Evers, J. Lund: Gleerups. Fairclough, N. Language and power 2nd ed. London: Longman 1st ed. Analysing discourse. Textual analysis for social research. London: Routledge. Fairclough, I. Political discourse analysis. A method for advanced students. Faria, A. Interdiscurso, intradiscurso e leitura. O caso de Germinal [Interdiscourse, intradiscourse and reading.

The case of Germinal]. Mari, R. Machado Eds. Foundations and practices]. Ferrari, A. La retorica fra scienza e professione legale. Questioni di metodo [Rhetoric between science and the legal profession. Methodological questions]. Ferraz Jr. Teoria da norma juridical. An essay on pragmatics of normative communication] 3rd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Forense. Ferreira, A. On the role of pragmatics, rhetoric and dialectics in scientific controversies.

On the role of pragmatics, rhetoric and dialectic in scientific controversies. Ferreira, I. Ferreira, L. Principles of rhetorical analysis]. Franca: Cristal. Feteris, E. Fundamentals of legal argumentation. A survey of theories on the justification of judicial decisions. Dordrecht: Kluwer trans. A survey of theories on the justification of legal decisions. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic]. Filliettaz, L. The Geneva model of discourse analysis. An interactionist and modular approach to discourse organization.

Discourse Studies, 4 3 , — Focas, J. Revista Litteris, 4 , 1— Rationale Argumentation. Ein Grundkurs in Argumentations- und Wissenschafstheorie [Rational argumentation. An introduction in the theory of argumentation and science]. Fontanier, P. Les figures du discours [The figures of discourse]. Forchtner, B. On the relation between the discourse-historical approach and pragma-dialectics.

Journal of Language and Politics, 11 1 , 31— Fowler, R. Critical linguistics. Fowler, B. Hodge, G. Trew Eds. Freeman, J. Fritz, G. Communication principles for controversies. A historical perspective. Frixen, G. Papiere zur Linguistik, 36 , 45— Linguistic and argumentative typologies of concession. An integrating approach. Frydman, B. Fuentes, C. Gabrielsen, J. Is there a topical dimension to the rhetorical example? Ekskursioner i den retoriske toposlaere [Topica.

Excursions into the rhetorical doctrine of topos]. Concepts and contexts — Argumentative forms of framing. Ganea, A. Strategically manoeuvring with reporting in the argumentation stage of a critical discussion. Expressing the source of information in discourse]. On the use of evidential strategies in Romanian. Interstudia 2. Language, Discourse, Society, 3 , 50— Identification and terming. Dissociation as strategic maneuvering in the Romanian public space. Osu, G. Col, N. Toupin Eds. Garavelli, M. Manuale di retorica [Handbook of rhetoric]. Milan: Bompiani. Gaspar, A.

Coimbra: Minerva. La dissociation argumentative. Constitutive elements, discourse structuring, and strategic maneuvering]. Pirazzini Eds. Actes de la section Argumentation du XXX. Frankfurt am Main-Vienna: Peter Lang. Identification, dissociation argumentative et construction notionnelle [Identification, argumentative dissociation, and notional construction]. Gauthier, G. The application of an analytical approach to argumentation].

Maarek Ed. Gelang, M. Nonverbal communication as argumentation. Gentner, D. A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7 , — Gerhardus, D. Logical pre-school text book]. Gil, F. Logica e argomentazione.

Médias et art dans les questionnements disciplinaires actuels et dans l’approche sémiotique

Un prontuario [Logic and argumentation. A handbook] 3d ed. Other types of dialogue in addition to persuasion are eristic , information seeking, inquiry , negotiation , deliberation , and the dialectical method Douglas Walton. The dialectical method was made famous by Plato and his use of Socrates critically questioning various characters and historical figures. Argumentation theory had its origins in foundationalism , a theory of knowledge epistemology in the field of philosophy. It sought to find the grounds for claims in the forms logic and materials factual laws of a universal system of knowledge.

But argument scholars gradually rejected Aristotle's systematic philosophy and the idealism in Plato and Kant. They questioned and ultimately discarded the idea that argument premises take their soundness from formal philosophical systems. The field thus broadened. Karl R. Wallace 's seminal essay, "The Substance of Rhetoric: Good Reasons" in the Quarterly Journal of Speech 44, led many scholars to study "marketplace argumentation" — the ordinary arguments of ordinary people.

The seminal essay on marketplace argumentation is Ray Lynn Anderson and C. Rorty has called this shift in emphasis "the linguistic turn ". In this new hybrid approach argumentation is used with or without empirical evidence to establish convincing conclusions about issues which are moral, scientific, epistemic, or of a nature in which science alone cannot answer. Out of pragmatism and many intellectual developments in the humanities and social sciences, "non-philosophical" argumentation theories grew which located the formal and material grounds of arguments in particular intellectual fields.

These theories include informal logic , social epistemology , ethnomethodology , speech acts , the sociology of knowledge, the sociology of science , and social psychology. These new theories are not non-logical or anti-logical. They find logical coherence in most communities of discourse. These theories are thus often labeled "sociological" in that they focus on the social grounds of knowledge. In general, the label "argumentation" is used by communication scholars such as to name only a few Wayne E.

Brockriede, Douglas Ehninger, Joseph W. Gouran , Daniel J. Johnson and J. Anthony Blair. Over the past thirty years, however, scholars from several disciplines have co-mingled at international conferences such as that hosted by the University of Amsterdam the Netherlands and the International Society for the Study of Argumentation ISSA.

Some scholars such as Ralph H. Johnson construe the term "argument" narrowly, as exclusively written discourse or even discourse in which all premises are explicit. Others such as Michael Gilbert construe the term "argument" broadly, to include spoken and even nonverbal discourse, for instance the degree to which a war memorial or propaganda poster can be said to argue or "make arguments". The philosopher Stephen Toulmin has said that an argument is a claim on our attention and belief, a view that would seem to authorize treating, say, propaganda posters as arguments.

The dispute between broad and narrow theorists is of long standing and is unlikely to be settled. The views of the majority of argumentation theorists and analysts fall somewhere between these two extremes. The study of naturally occurring conversation arose from the field of sociolinguistics. It is usually called conversation analysis.

Inspired by ethnomethodology, it was developed in the late s and early s principally by the sociologist Harvey Sacks and, among others, his close associates Emanuel Schegloff and Gail Jefferson. Sacks died early in his career, but his work was championed by others in his field, and CA has now become an established force in sociology, anthropology, linguistics, speech-communication and psychology.

Recently CA techniques of sequential analysis have been employed by phoneticians to explore the fine phonetic details of speech. Empirical studies and theoretical formulations by Sally Jackson and Scott Jacobs, and several generations of their students, have described argumentation as a form of managing conversational disagreement within communication contexts and systems that naturally prefer agreement. The basis of mathematical truth has been the subject of long debate. Frege in particular sought to demonstrate see Gottlob Frege, The Foundations of Arithmetic , , and Begriffsschrift , that arithmetical truths can be derived from purely logical axioms and therefore are, in the end, logical truths.

If an argument can be cast in the form of sentences in Symbolic Logic, then it can be tested by the application of accepted proof procedures. This has been carried out for Arithmetic using Peano axioms. Be that as it may, an argument in Mathematics, as in any other discipline, can be considered valid only if it can be shown that it cannot have true premises and a false conclusion.

Perhaps the most radical statement of the social grounds of scientific knowledge appears in Alan G. Gross holds that science is rhetorical "without remainder", [10] meaning that scientific knowledge itself cannot be seen as an idealized ground of knowledge. Scientific knowledge is produced rhetorically, meaning that it has special epistemic authority only insofar as its communal methods of verification are trustworthy.

This thinking represents an almost complete rejection of the foundationalism on which argumentation was first based. Interpretive argumentation is pertinent to the humanities , hermeneutics , literary theory , linguistics , semantics , pragmatics , semiotics , analytic philosophy and aesthetics. Topics in conceptual interpretation include aesthetic , judicial , logical and religious interpretation. Topics in scientific interpretation include scientific modeling. Legal arguments are spoken presentations to a judge or appellate court by a lawyer, or parties when representing themselves of the legal reasons why they should prevail.

Oral argument at the appellate level accompanies written briefs, which also advance the argument of each party in the legal dispute. A closing argument, or summation, is the concluding statement of each party's counsel reiterating the important arguments for the trier of fact, often the jury, in a court case. A closing argument occurs after the presentation of evidence. Political arguments are used by academics, media pundits, candidates for political office and government officials.

Political arguments are also used by citizens in ordinary interactions to comment about and understand political events. Political scientist Samuel L. Popkin coined the expression " low information voters " to describe most voters who know very little about politics or the world in general.

In practice, a " low information voter " may not be aware of legislation that their representative has sponsored in Congress. A low-information voter may base their ballot box decision on a media sound-bite, or a flier received in the mail. It is possible for a media sound-bite or campaign flier to present a political position for the incumbent candidate that completely contradicts the legislative action taken in the Capitol on behalf of the constituents. When this happens, the constituency at large may have been duped or fooled.

Nevertheless, the election result is legal and confirmed. Savvy Political consultants will take advantage of low-information voters and sway their votes with disinformation because it can be easier and sufficiently effective. Fact checkers have come about in recent years to help counter the effects of such campaign tactics. Psychology has long studied the non-logical aspects of argumentation. For example, studies have shown that simple repetition of an idea is often a more effective method of argumentation than appeals to reason.

Propaganda often utilizes repetition. Empirical studies of communicator credibility and attractiveness, sometimes labeled charisma, have also been tied closely to empirically-occurring arguments. Such studies bring argumentation within the ambit of persuasion theory and practice.

Some psychologists such as William J. McGuire believe that the syllogism is the basic unit of human reasoning. A central line of this way of thinking is that logic is contaminated by psychological variables such as "wishful thinking", in which subjects confound the likelihood of predictions with the desirability of the predictions.

People hear what they want to hear and see what they expect to see. If planners want something to happen they see it as likely to happen. If they hope something will not happen, they see it as unlikely to happen. Thus smokers think that they personally will avoid cancer, promiscuous people practice unsafe sex, and teenagers drive recklessly. Stephen Toulmin and Charles Arthur Willard have championed the idea of argument fields, the former drawing upon Ludwig Wittgenstein's notion of language games , Sprachspiel the latter drawing from communication and argumentation theory, sociology, political science, and social epistemology.

For Toulmin, the term "field" designates discourses within which arguments and factual claims are grounded. Thomas Goodnight has studied "spheres" of argument and sparked a large literature created by younger scholars responding to or using his ideas. Field studies might focus on social movements, issue-centered publics for instance, pro-life versus pro-choice in the abortion dispute , small activist groups, corporate public relations campaigns and issue management, scientific communities and disputes, political campaigns, and intellectual traditions.

This is not a quest for some master language or master theory covering all specifics of human activity. Field theorists are agnostic about the possibility of a single grand theory and skeptical about the usefulness of such a theory. Theirs is a more modest quest for "mid-range" theories that might permit generalizations about families of discourses. By far, the most influential theorist has been Stephen Toulmin , the Cambridge educated philosopher and educator, [18] best known for his Toulmin model of argument. What follows below is a sketch of his ideas. Toulmin has argued that absolutism represented by theoretical or analytic arguments has limited practical value.

Absolutism is derived from Plato's idealized formal logic, which advocates universal truth; thus absolutists believe that moral issues can be resolved by adhering to a standard set of moral principles, regardless of context. By contrast, Toulmin asserts that many of these so-called standard principles are irrelevant to real situations encountered by human beings in daily life.

To describe his vision of daily life, Toulmin introduced the concept of argument fields; in The Uses of Argument , Toulmin states that some aspects of arguments vary from field to field, and are hence called "field-dependent", while other aspects of argument are the same throughout all fields, and are hence called "field-invariant". The flaw of absolutism, Toulmin believes, lies in its unawareness of the field-dependent aspect of argument; absolutism assumes that all aspects of argument are field invariant.

Toulmin's theories resolve to avoid the defects of absolutism without resorting to relativism: relativism, Toulmin asserted, provides no basis for distinguishing between a moral or immoral argument. In Human Understanding , Toulmin suggests that anthropologists have been tempted to side with relativists because they have noticed the influence of cultural variations on rational arguments; in other words, the anthropologist or relativist overemphasizes the importance of the "field-dependent" aspect of arguments, and becomes unaware of the "field-invariant" elements. In an attempt to provide solutions to the problems of absolutism and relativism, Toulmin attempts throughout his work to develop standards that are neither absolutist nor relativist for assessing the worth of ideas.

Toulmin believes that a good argument can succeed in providing good justification to a claim, which will stand up to criticism and earn a favourable verdict. In The Uses of Argument , Toulmin introduced what became known as the Toulmin Model of Argument , which broke argument into six interrelated components:. The first three elements "claim", "data", and "warrant" are considered as the essential components of practical arguments, while the second triad "qualifier", "backing", and "rebuttal" may not be needed in some arguments. When first proposed, this layout of argumentation is based on legal arguments and intended to be used to analyze the rationality of arguments typically found in the courtroom; in fact, Toulmin did not realize that this layout would be applicable to the field of rhetoric and communication until his works were introduced to rhetoricians by Wayne Brockriede and Douglas Ehninger.

Their "Decision by Debate" streamlined Toulmin's terminology and broadly introduced his model to the field of debate. Toulmin's Human Understanding asserts that conceptual change is evolutionary. Kuhn held that conceptual change is a revolutionary as opposed to an evolutionary process in which mutually exclusive paradigms compete to replace one another.

Toulmin criticizes the relativist elements in Kuhn's thesis, as he points out that the mutually exclusive paradigms provide no ground for comparison; in other words, Kuhn's thesis has made the relativists' error of overemphasizing the "field variant" while ignoring the "field invariant", or commonality shared by all argumentation or scientific paradigms. Toulmin proposes an evolutionary model of conceptual change comparable to Darwin's model of biological evolution. On this reasoning, conceptual change involves innovation and selection.

Innovation accounts for the appearance of conceptual variations, while selection accounts for the survival and perpetuation of the soundest conceptions. Innovation occurs when the professionals of a particular discipline come to view things differently from their predecessors; selection subjects the innovative concepts to a process of debate and inquiry in what Toulmin considers as a "forum of competitions". The soundest concepts will survive the forum of competition as replacements or revisions of the traditional conceptions. From the absolutists' point of view, concepts are either valid or invalid regardless of contexts; from a relativists' perspective, one concept is neither better nor worse than a rival concept from a different cultural context.

From Toulmin's perspective, the evaluation depends on a process of comparison, which determines whether or not one concept will provide improvement to our explanatory power more so than its rival concepts. In Cosmopolis , Toulmin traces the quest for certainty back to Descartes and Hobbes, and lauds Dewey, Wittgenstein, Heidegger and Rorty for abandoning that tradition.

Scholars at the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands have pioneered a rigorous modern version of dialectic under the name pragma-dialectics. The intuitive idea is to formulate clearcut rules that, if followed, will yield rational discussion and sound conclusions. Frans H. The theory postulates this as an ideal model, and not something one expects to find as an empirical fact. The model can however serve as an important heuristic and critical tool for testing how reality approximates this ideal and point to where discourse goes wrong, that is, when the rules are violated. Any such violation will constitute a fallacy.

Albeit not primarily focused on fallacies, pragma-dialectics provides a systematic approach to deal with them in a coherent way. Doug Walton developed a distinctive philosophical theory of logical argumentation built around a set of practical methods to help a user identify, analyze and evaluate arguments in everyday conversational discourse and in more structured areas such as debate, law and scientific fields. The method uses the notion of commitment in dialogue as the fundamental tool for the analysis and evaluation of argumentation rather than the notion of belief.

According to the commitment model, agents interact with each other in a dialogue in which each takes its turn to contribute speech acts. The dialogue framework uses critical questioning as a way of testing plausible explanations and finding weak points in an argument that raise doubt concerning the acceptability of the argument. Walton's logical argumentation model takes a different view of proof and justification from that taken in the dominant epistemology in analytical philosophy, which is based on a justified true belief framework.

On this evidence-based approach, scientific knowledge must be seen as defeasible. Efforts have been made within the field of artificial intelligence to perform and analyze the act of argumentation with computers. Argumentation has been used to provide a proof-theoretic semantics for non-monotonic logic , starting with the influential work of Dung Computational argumentation systems have found particular application in domains where formal logic and classical decision theory are unable to capture the richness of reasoning, domains such as law and medicine.

In Elements of Argumentation , Philippe Besnard and Anthony Hunter show how classical logic-based techniques can be used to capture key elements of practical argumentation.